Jabal Fayfa


 Vegetation  Farasan Islands  Taif  Asir Huraymala Hail

                      Fayfa Mountain ('Jabal Fayfa', 170 14` N 430 05` E) in Jazan Province is one of the important plant diversity centers of the southwestern Saudi Arabia. It is characterized by a mosaic environment and possesses a relatively rich and diverse flora. These undulating mountains range in elevation from 900 m (Al-Ghardha) to about 2000 m (Al-Abseeya) and extend over several kilometers along a roughly north-south axis. On the southern side, these mountains join the mountains of Yemen and on the north with the mountains of Bani Malik. To the west of these mountains lie the Tihama coastal plains, an arid land with sparse vegetation. Compared to the eastern side, the west facing slopes of the mountains are steep and are characterized by dense vegetation.  The eastern slopes are the rain shadow regions and are less species rich.

         Fayfa Mountains is not a single steep escarpment but a series of mountain ranges cut by deep valleys. The hillocks on the outer side of the mountain range are less than 700 m high. The vegetation on these hillocks is somewhat sparse and in a highly degraded state due to heavy grazing and flash-floods. Further east, the region has another set of mountains with altitudes ranging from 800-1200m. Top soil in this part is also highly altered as it eroded away in heavy rains. Vegetation in these mountains is not strikingly rich. Yet, scattered and occasionally dense vegetation can be seen on open and eroded slopes of the escarpment. The interior part of the escarpments is somewhat steep with an average height of about 2000m.

            The mountains of Fayfa harbor a rich flora that is more or less similar to that of Yemen and nearby countries in Africa such as Ethiopia, Eritrea, etc. The west facing slopes, which benefit from constant moisture-laden breezes from the Red Sea hold several micro hotspots and sustain a number of endemics and several endangered species; these include a few remaining stands of the vulnerable species such as Dracaena ombet, Dorstenia foetida, Ceropegia spp., etc.

Jabal Fayfa is differentiated into a spectrum of climatic zones, each with a distinct vegetation cover. The vegetation of the foothills is rather sparse and highly degraded due to heavy grazing and flash floods. Further east, the area is thrown into a set of mountains with altitudes ranging from 800 to 1200 m. Although the flora in these areas is not strikingly rich, occasional dense vegetation is not uncommon on open and eroded slopes of the escarpments. The interior of the escarpment is somewhat steep. Dominant members of the vegetation between 1500-2000 m include: Juniperus procera, Ficus sycomorus, Acacia mellifera, A. seyal, Euclea schimperi and Carissa edulis.  

            The entire Fayfa Mountain range is divided into three regions, i.e. low lying mountains (up to 1000m), high altitude wadis and escarpments. The vegetation of the low lying areas is dominated by Acacia etbaica along with occasional trees of A. mellifera and A. asak. Commiphora spp. and Acacia ehrenbergiana are the main components of the hills below 500-900m. Other trees such as A. abyssinica, Combretum molle, Tichellia emetica, Tamarindus indica, Ziziphus spina-christi, Dobera glabra, Mimusops laurifolia and Delonix elata are also dominant but in small restricted localities of the west facing slopes.            

            In the Acacia-Commiphora bushland, which is dominating in the low altitude, several species of shrubs are also found in great abundance. Adenium arabicum, Anisotes trisulcus, Grewia tembensis, Maerua oblongifolia, Acalypha fruticosa are some of them. Majority of abandoned agricultural terraces possess secondary vegetation. Important plants of this group include: Solanum schimperianum, Clutia lanceolata, Solanum incanum, Ricinus communis, Commiphora spp.,  Carissa edulis, Otostegia fruticosa, Rumex nervosus, etc. Herbaceous flora includes Evolvulus alsinoides, Anagallis arvensis, Chenopodium spp., Conyza stricta, Pennisetum setaceum, Themeda triandra. Agricultural terrace walls also possess a distinctive flora of their own. The most common plants of this category are Campanula edulis, Micromeria imbricate, Reichardia tingitana, Asplenium aethiopicum, Conzya pyrrhopappa, Nepeta deflersiana, etc.

             Vegetation of high altitude (c. 2000m) areas is in a highly degraded state due to urbanization. However, patches of vegetation dominated by trees such as Juniperus procera, Olea europaea, Ficus sycomorus, Dracaena ombet, etc can be found in certain localities. In addition to the tree components, shrubs and woody herbs are also widely distributed along the escarpments. These include: Otostegia fruticosa, Psiadia punctulata,  Teucrium yemense, Tagetus minuta, Dodonaea angustifolia, Pluchea dioscoridis, Pulicaria schimperi, Plectranthus asirensis, etc and grasses such as Themeda triandra, Hyparrhenia hirta, Tetrapogon villosus,  Sporobolus nervosus and Rhynchelytrum repens.  Dense vegetation is virtually absent in the entire east facing slopes. However, succulent shrubs such as Aloe spp. Euphorbia spp., etc. can be found in most of the areas along with Acacia asak and occasionally Moringa peregrina trees  

537 species of vascular plants have been recorded from the area, which represents about 24% of the total collections so far recorded from the entire floristic region of Saudi Arabia. Unlike the flora of other regions of Saudi Arabia where the majority is represented by annuals, two-thirds of the flora of the Jabal Fayfa is represented by perennials. Fabaceae is the largest family with 51 species followed by Poaceae and Asteraceae with 47 and 46 species, respectively. (Courtesy- A prelude to the study of the flora of Jabal Fayfa in Saudi Arabia by Dr. T.A. Al-Turki)

Species recorded from Jabal Fayfa. 

First record from Jabal Fayfa (*); endemic-endangered (^); non-endemic-endangered (#); endemic not endangered (+).  



Actinopteris radiata (Swartz)

Actinopteris semiflabellata Pichi-Sermoli



Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Adiantum incisum Forssk.

Cheilanthus coriacea Decne.

Cheilanthes pteridioides (Reichards) C. Chr.

Cosentina vellea (Ait.) Tod.



Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Becherer

Asplenium officinarum L.



# Hypodematium crenatum (Forssk.) Kuhn



Selaginella imbricata (Forssk.) Spring

Selaginella yemensis (Swartz) Spring





Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl.                              







+ Anisotes trisulcus (Forssk.) Nees                               

Barleria acanthoides Vahl                                   

+ Barleria bispinosa (Forssk.) Vahl                            

# Barleria prionitis  L. ssp. appressa (Forssk.) Brummitt & J.R.I. Wood.            

+ Barleria trispinosa (Forssk.) Vahl                                      

Blepharis ciliaris (L.) B.L. Burtt                                   

# Blepharis madraspatensis (L.) Heyne ex Roth.                         

Crossandra johanninae Fiori

Ecbolium viride (Forssk.) Alston                                   

Hypoestes forskalei (Vahl) Soland. ex Roem & Schult.                      

Justicia caerulea Forssk.

Justicia flava (Vahl) Vahl                          

# Monechma debile (Forssk.) Nees

Peristrophe paniculata (Forssk.) Brummit                          

# Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet.

Ruellia patula Jacq.                                            

Ruellia prostrata T. Anderson



Corbichonia decumbens (Forssk.) Exell

Gisekia pharnaceoides L.   

Glinus lotoides L.         

Mollugo cerviana (L.) Seringe.

Trianthema crystallina (Forssk.) Vahl 

Zaleya pentandra (L.) C. Jeffrey



Achyranthes aspera L. var. aspera

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult.                                

Aerva lanata (L.) A. Juss. ex. Schults

Alternanthera pungens Kunth.

Amaranthus graecizans L. ssp. sylvestris (Vill.) Brenan

Amaranthus hybridus ssp. hybridus L.  

Amaranthus spinosus L.      

Amaranthus viridis L.       

# Celosia trigyna L.   

Digera muricata (L.) Mart.    

Pupalia lappacea (L.) A. Juss.



Rhus abyssinica Hochst. ex Oliv.                                                  

* Rhus retinorrhaea Steud. ex Oliv.                                                          

Schinus molle L.                                      

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi   



# Annona squamosa L. 



Foeniculum vulgare Mill.                                                     

Pimpinella  eriocarpa Banks et Sol.

Pimpinella hirtella (Hochst.) A. Rich.

Pimpinella peregrina L.

Pimpinella schweinfurthii Asch.

Torilis arvensis L.



Acokanthera schimperi (A. DC.) Benth.                                        

+ Adenium arabicum Balf.f.                                          

Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl.



# Angolluma deflersiana (Lavr.) Plowes

# Angolluma eremastrum (Swartz) Plowes.

Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton                                       

# Ceropegia arabica  Huber var. arabica

+ Ceropegia aristolochioides Decne. ssp deflersiana Bruyns             

Cynanchum gerrardii (Harvey) Liede

Desmidorchis retrospiciens (Forssk.) Plowes                       

Gomphocarpus sinaicus Boiss.                                        

Kanahia laniflora (Forssk.) R.Br.                                            

Leptadenia arborea (Forssk.) Schweinf.

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne.                                           

Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov.                                      

Periploca somaliensis Browicz                                       

+ Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R.Br. ssp. stipitaceum (Forssk.) Meve & Liede    



* Artemisia abysinthium L.                                 

Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff.

Bidens pilosa L.

Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.                           

Conyza hochstetteri Sch.-Bip. ex A. Rich.                           

Conyza incana (Vahl) Willd.                                        

Conyza pyrrhopappa Sch.-Bip. ex A. Rich.                         

Conyza stricta Willd.                         

Crepis ruepellii Sch.-Bip.                       

Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia (Blume) DC.

* +  Echinops erinaceus Kit Tan                                   

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Felicia dentata (A.Rich.) Dandy

Filago pyramidata L.                               

Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) Mohr.                      

Gnaphalium luteo-album L.

Helichrysum glumaceum DC.

Kleinia anteuphorbium (L.) DC.                                  

# Kleinia pendula (Forssk.) DC.                                     

Lactuca dissecta D. Don

Lactuca inermis Forssk.

Lactuca serriola L.                              

Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) Beauverd

Launaea massauensis (Fresen.) Sch.-Bip. ex Kuntze

Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal

Phagnalon schweinfurthii Sch.-Bip. var. androssovii (B. Fedtsch.) Qaiser & Lack.

Phagnalon stenolepis Chiov.

Picris cyanocarpa Boiss.                    

Pluchea dioscoridis DC.

Psiadia punctulata (DC.) Vatke                                

Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A. Mey                                     

Pulicaria petiolaris Jaub. & Spach.                                    

Pulicaria schimperi DC.                                          

Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth var. arabica (Hochst. & Steud.) Asch. & Schweinf.

+ Senecio asirensis Boulos & Wood                                      

Senecio bojeri DC.                                                                       

Senecio hadiensis Forssk.                                                      

# Senecio lyratus Forssk.

Sonchus oleraceus L.                               

Sonchus saudensis Boulos

* Sonchus tenerrimus L.

Tagetes minuta L.

Tridax procumbens L.

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

Vernonia cinerascens Sch.-Bip

Vernonia schimperi Sch.-Bip                             



Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss.                                   

Arnebia hispidissima (Lehm.) DC.                                             

# Cordia africana Lam.                           

Cynoglossum bottae Deflers

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.                       

# Ehretia abyssinica R.Br. ex Fresen.

# * Ehretia obtusifolia Hochst.                              

Heliotropium longiflorum Hochst. & Steudel                       

Heliotropium pterocarpum (DC.) Steud. & Hochst.  ex. Bunge               

Heliotropium strigosum Willd.                     

Heliotropium subulatum (DC.) Vatke 



Arabis alpina L.

# Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.                            

Erucastrum arabicum Fisher & C. Meyer

Lepidium africanum (Burm.f.) DC.                                   

# Lepidium bonariense L.

Sisymbrium erysimoides Desf.

Sisymbrium irio L.                                

Sisymbrium orientale L.



Commiphora habessinica (O. Berg.) Engl.                                      

Commiphora kataf (Forssk.) Engl.                                                        

Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl.                                                        

Commiphora quadricinta Schweinf.



Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl.) Haw.

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller



Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. Ex Endl.                              

Maytenus arbutifolia (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Wilczek.

Maytenus forsskaoliana Sebsebe

Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell.

Maytenus sidamoensis (Sebsebe) S. Abedin



# Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene

Delonix elata (L.) Gamble.                                                   

# * Pterolobium stellatum (Forssk.) Brenan                                       

Senna alexandrina Mill.                                                                

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link.                                       

Tamarindus indica L.  



Campanula edulis Forssk.



Capparis sinaica Veill.                                                          

Cleome gynandra L.                                                       

Cleome scaposa DC.                                       

Cleome viscosa L.                                                      

Maerua crassifolia Forssk.                                           

Maerua oblongifolia (Forssk.) A. Rich.

# Maerua triphylla A. Rich. var. calophylla (Gilg)De Wolf.



Cerastium glomeratum Thuill

# Pollichia campestris Ait.

Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L.

# Silene apetala Willd.  

Silene schweinfurthii Rohrb.  



Chenopodium album L.

Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

Chenopodium carinatum R.Br.

Chenopodium fasciculosum Aellen

Chenopodium murale L.                             

* Chenopodium schraderianum Schult.



* Combretum molle R.Br. ex G. Don.                                             

Terminalia brownii Fresen.



# Astripomoea malvacea (Klotzsch) Meeuse

Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.                                           

Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br.

Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker.-Gawl.

Ipomoea sinensis ssp. sinensis (Desv.) Choisy

Seddera arabica (Forssk.) Choisy



Crassula alba Forssk.

Crassula schimperi C.A. Mey

Kalanchoe alternans (Vahl) Pers                             

Kalanchoe citrina Schweinf.

Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw.

Kalanchoe deficiens (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf.                              

Kalanchoe glaucescens Britten

# Kalanchoe laciniata (L.) DC.                                       

Kalanchoe lanceolata (Forssk.) Pers.



Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.                                                

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt                                                           

Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottler) Hook. F. ex C.B. Clarke

Cucumis dipsaceus Spach.                                                             

Cucumis melo L.                                                             

Cucumis prophetarum L.                                                

Cucumis pustulatus Hook.f.                                                            

Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn.

Momordica balsamina L.   



# Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex DC.                                      

* Euclea schimperi (DC.) Dandy.



Acalypha ciliata Forssk.                                                               

Acalypha fruticosa var. villosa Pax ex. Hutch.

Acalypha indica L.

Acalypha racemosa Wall. ex Baill

Chrozophora oblongifolia (Delile) Spreng.

Clutia lanceolata Forssk.

# Croton lobatus  L.

Dalechampia scandens L. var. cordofana (Webb) Muell.-Arg.

# Erythrococca abyssinica Pax                                

Euphorbia ammak Schweinf.                                

Euphorbia cactus Ehrenb. ex Boiss.                                 

Euphorbia granulata Forssk.                                                   

Euphorbia hirta L.

Euphorbia hypericifolia L.

# Euphorbia inaequilatera Sond.                                    

Euphorbia inarticulata Schweinf.                                            

Euphorbia schimperiana Scheele                                                 

Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk.                                             

Jatropha curcas L.                       

Jatropha glauca Vahl

Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L.

Phyllanthus rotundifolius Willd.

Phyllanthus nummularifolius Poir.

Ricinus communis L.

Tragia pungens (Forssk.) Muell.-Arg.



# Oncoba spinosa Forssk.



Centaurium mairei Zeltner

Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal



Geranium biuncinatum Kokwaro

Geranium mascatense Boiss.

Pelargonium multibracteatum Hochst ex A. Rich.



# Hypericum annulatum Moris



Endostemon tereticaulis (Poir.) Ashby

# Lavandula atriplicifolia Benth.                 

Lavandula coronopifolia Poir.                                 

Lavandula pubescens Decne.                                 

Leucas alba (Forssk.) Sebald.                      

Leucas martinicensis R.Br.

Leucas urticifolia (Vahl) R.Br.                                      

Micromeria abyssinica Benth.

Micromeria imbricata (Forssk.) O. Chr.

Ocimum americanum L.

Ocimum filamentosum Forssk.                            

Ocimum forskolei Benth.                                             

Ocimum serpyllifolium Forssk.                               

Orthosiphon pallidus Royle ex Benth.

Orthosiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen

Otostegia fruticosa ssp. schimperi (Benth.) Sebald                              

# Plectranthus arabicus E.A. Bruce. 

Plectranthus asirensis J.R.I. Wood                           

Teucrium yemense Defl.



Cassytha filiformis L.



Linum corymbulosum Reich.

* Linum trigynum L.



Nuxia oppositifolia (Hochst.) Benth.



* Phragmanthera austroarabica A.G. Miller                                           

* Tapinanthus globiferus (A. Rich.) Tiegh.



Lawsonia inermis L.



Abutilon bidentatum A. Rich.

Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.    

Abutilon muticum (Del. ex DC.) Sw.

# Abutilon ramosum Guill. & Perr.  

# Gossypium hirsutum L.

Hibiscus aponeurus Sprague & Hutch 

Hibiscus aristaevalvis Garcke

# Hibiscus calyphyllus Cav.

Hibiscus deflersii Schweinf. ex Cufod. 

Hibiscus micranthus L.f.                               

Hibiscus meidiensis Ulbr.

Hibiscus vitifolius L.

Pavonia burchellii (DC.) R.A. Dyer

Pavonia procumbens (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) Wallp.

Sida alba L. 

Sida alii S. Abedin     

Sida ovata Forssk.



Azadirachta indica A. Juss.                                               

Melia azedarach L.                                                               

Trichilia emetica Vahl  



Acacia abyssinica Hochst.                                                    

Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd.                                                    

Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne                                              

Acacia etbaica Schweinf.                                               

Acacia gerrardii Benth.                                                      

Acacia hamulosa Benth.                                                           

Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth

Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf.                                            

* Acacia origena Asfaw                                          

Acacia seyal Del.                                                                    

Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne                                                         

Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn.



Dorstenia foetida (Forssk.) Schweinf.                            

Ficus cordata ssp. salicifolia (Vahl) C.C. Berg.  

* Ficus ingens (Miq.) Miq.  

Ficus palmata Forssk.                     

Ficus sycomorus L.

* Ficus vasta Forssk.



# Myrsine africana L.  



Boerhavia diffusa L.  

Boerhavia repens L.

* # Commicarpus ambiguus Meikle

Commicarpus arabicus Meikle

Commicarpus grandiflorus (A. Rich.) Standeley

Commicarpus helenae (Roem.&Schultes) Meikle

# Commicarpus mistus Thulin

Commicarpus plumbagineus (Cav.) Standley 



Jasminum grandiflorum L.                                       

* Olea europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri   



Orobanche ramosa L.



Oxalis corniculata L.



Argemone mexicana L.



Abrus bottae Defl.                                           

# Abrus precatorius L.                                                              

Argyrolobium arabicum (Decne.) Jaub. & Spach                                    

Astragalus atropilosulus (Hochst.) Bunge

Astragalus fatmensis (Hochst.) ex Chiov

Astragalus vogelii (Webb.) Bornm.

Crotalaria incana L.

Crotalaria pycnostachya Benth.

# Crotalaria quartiniana A. Rich.

# Crotalaria senegalensis (Pers.) DC.                                             

# Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.

Dolichos trilobus L.

Glycine wightii ssp. wightii var. longicauda (Schweinf.) Verd.

Indigofera amorphoides Jaub. & Spach

Indigofera arabica Jaub. & Spach                                 

Indigofera arrecta Hochst. ex A. Rich.                                 

Indigofera articulata Gouan

Indigofera caerulea  var. occidentalis Gillet & Ali

Indigofera colutea (Burm.f.)Merr.

Indigofera hochstetteri Baker

Indigofera oblongifolia Forssk.                                                     

Indigofera spicata Forssk.

Indigofera spinosa Forssk.                                         

Indigofera tinctoria L.                                                       

Indigofera trita L.f. var. maffeii (Chiov.) Ali

Indigofera volkensii Taub.

Lablab purpureus (L.) Sw.                          

^ Lotus arabicus L.

Lotus gebelia Vent.

Lotus halophilus L.

Macrotyloma axillare (E. Mey) Verdc. var. axillare

Medicago lupulina L.

* Melilotus alba Medic.

* Melilotus indica (L.) All.

* Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.

Phaseolus lunatus L.

Rhynchosia buramensis Hutch. & Bruce

Rhynchosia pulverulenta Stocks.

Rhynchosia totta (Thunb.) DC.

Syn.: Glycine totta Thunb.

^ Rhynchosia variegata (Defl.) Wood.

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.

# Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston

Tephrosia pumila (Lam.) Pers.

Tephrosia purpurea  (L.) Pers. ssp. apollinea  (Del.) Hosni & El Karemy                    

# Tephrosia subtriflora Hochst. ex Bak.

Tephrosia uniflora Pers. ssp. petrosa (Blatt. & Hallib.) C.J.B.Gillett & Ali

Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng. ssp arabicus Verdc.

Teramnus repens ssp. gracilis (Chiov.) Verdc.

Vermifrux abyssinica (A. Rich.) Gillett

Vigna ambacensis Welw. ex Bak.

Vigna membranacea A.Rich.



* # Plumbago zeylanica L.



Polygala abyssinica R.Br. ex Fresen.                                       

Polygala erioptera DC.                                                                     

Polygala senensis Klotzsch.                                                                       

Polygala tinctoria Vahl   



Emex spinosa (L.) Campd.    

Oxygonum sinuatum  (Meisn.) Dammer

Rumex nervosus Vahl 

Rumex steudelii Hochst. ex A. Rich. 



Portulaca oleracea L.

Portulaca quadrifida L.   

Talinum portulacifolium (Forssk.) Asch.



Anagallis arvensis L.



Clematis hirsuta Guill & Perr.



Ochradenus baccatus Del.                                       

+ Reseda sphenocleoides Defl. 



Berchemia discolor (Klotzch)Hemsl.                                      

Sageretia thea (Osbeck) Johnst.                                            

Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd. 



Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb.                                                        

Prunus communis (L.) Arc.                                                                    

Rosa abyssinica Lindley  



Coffea arabica L.                      

Kohautia aspera (Heyne ex Roth) Bremekamp

Kohautia caespitosa Schnitzl.

Oldenlandia capensis L.f. var. capensis

# Oldenlandia corymbosa L.

Pavetta longiflora Vahl                             

Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers.

Psydrax schimperiana (Rich.) Bridson                                  

Pyrostria phyllanthoidea (Baill.) Bridson

Tarenna graveolens ssp. arabica (Cuf.) Bridson   



Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Juss. ex Poir.                               

Salvadora persica L. 



# Mimusops laurifolia (Forssk.) Friis 



* Antirrhinum orontium L.                                      

+ Anarrhinum forskalii (J.F. Gmel.) Cufod.                   

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell.                                      

Craterostigma pumilum Hochst.

Kickxia hastata (R.Br.) Dandy

Lindenbergia indica (L.) Kuntze

Schweinfurthia pterosperma A. Braun.

Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.                             

Verbascum bottae (Deflers) Huber-Mor.                           

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.

* Veronica polita Fries

V. didyma auct, non Ten.



Datura metel L

Nicotiana tabacum L.                                    

Physalis minima L.

Solanum forskalii Dunal

Solanum glabratum Dunal.                           

Solanum incanum L. var. incanum                          

Solanum nigrum L.                                                                   

Solanum schimperianum Hochst. ex Dun                                         

Solanum surattense Burm.f.                                               

Solanum villosum (L.) Mill.                                                         

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal    



Melhania acuminata Mast.

Melhania incana Heyne

# Melhania velutina Forssk.

# Waltheria indica L.



Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bge.    



Corchorus depressus (L.) Christ.

Corchorus tridens L.                                     

Corchorus trilocularis L.                                       

Grewia mollis Juss.    

Grewia tembensis Fresen                                                          

*Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich

Grewia velutina (Forssk.) Vahl    

Grewia villosa Willd.

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.



Chascanum marrubifolium Fenzl ex Walp.

Lantana camara L.

Lantana petitiana A. Rich.

Lantana viburnoides (Forssk.) Vahl

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene.                                                           

Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schau.                                  

Priva cordifolia (L.f.) Druce  



* Celtis africana Burm.f 

* #  Trema orientalis (L.) Bl.



Forsskaolea tenacissima L.  

Forsskaolea viridis Ehrenb.

Parietaria alsinifolia Del.  

^ Parietaria umbricola A.G. Miller

Urtica urens L.  



Cissus quadrangularis L.                                                       

Cissus rotundifolia (Forssk.) Vahl                                                        

Cyphostemma digitatum (Forssk.) Desc.                                       

Rhoicissus revoilii Planchon

# Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Wild. & Drummon



Fagonia indica Burm. f.                                          

Zygophyllum simplex L.





Dracaena ombet  Kotschy & Peyr.                             

Sansevieria ehrenbergii  Schweinf. ex Baker



Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf.



Commelina africana L.                                     

Commelina benghalensis L.

Commelina erecta L.                                 

Commelina forskaolii Vahl                                

Cyanotis nyctitropa Deflers.



Cyperus dubius ssp. macrocephalus (C.B. Clk.) Lye.

Cyperus jeminicus Rottb.                                     

Cyperus niveus Retz.

Cyperus rotundus L

Cyperus rubicundus Vahl

Fimbristylis cymosa R.Br.



Aloe castellorum J.R.I. Wood                                             

Aloe fleurentiniorum Lavr.                                               

Aloe officinalis Forssk.                                                 

^ Aloe parvicapsula Lavr. & Collen.                         

^ Aloe woodii Lavr. & Collen.    

Asparagus africanus Lam.                               

Dipcadi viride (L.) Moench



# Bonatea steudneri (Rchb.f.) T. Durand & Schinz

Eulophia petersii (Rchb.f.) T. Durand & Schinz



Pandanus tectorius Parkinson 



Aristida adscensionis L.                                                    

Arthraxon prionodes (Steudel) Dandy

Brachiaria leersioides (Hochst.) Stapf

Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gardner & Hubbard                        

Brachiaria scalaris Pilg.

Cenchrus ciliaris L.                                   

Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steudel                                  

Cenchrus setigerus Vahl                                           

Chloris barbata SW.                            

Chloris gayana Kunth                             

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.                        

Digitaria abyssinica (A. Rich.) Stapf                      

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel.                        

Digitaria nodosa Parl.                                         

Digitaria velutina (Forssk.) P. Beauv.                                 

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link                                         

Enneapogon lophotrichus Chiov.                                        

Enneapogon schimperianus (Hochst. ex A. Rich) Renvoize

Enteropogon macrostachyos (Vahl) K.Schum.

Eragrostis barrelieri Daveau                               

Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin.                                

Eragrostis macilenta (A. Rich.) Steudel                              

Eragrostis minor Host.                                  

Eragrostis papposa (Roem & Schult.) Steud.                   

Harpachene schimperi A. Rich.

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv.

Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf

Panicum maximum Jacq.                            

Panicum turgidum Forssk.

Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.

Pennisetum unisetum (Nees) Benth.

Phalaris minor Retz.                                                          

Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubbard

Rostraria pumila (Desf.) Tzvelve                        

Saccharum spontaneum L.                                                  

Sehima nervosum (Willd.) Stapf

Setaria plicatilis (Hochst.) Hackel ex Engl.                                 

Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv.                                

Sporobolus nervosus Hochst.

Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv.                           

Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl) Kunth                               

Stipagrostis hirtigluma (Trin.& Rupr.) de Winter

Tetrapogon villosus Desf.                                      

Themeda triandra Forssk.                                        

Tragus berteronianus Schult.                                       

Tricholaena teneriffae (L.f.) Link.



Typha elephantina Roxb.                             



# Xerophyta arabica (Baker) N. Menezes


Last updated on 15/12/2014.   Written, designed and maintained by Dr. Jacob Thomas, Dept. of Botany & Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh