Jabal Shada

 

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Flora Vegetation Local Floras Asir Mountains Southern Tihama

                

                Shada Mountains (Jabal Shada) is an isolated twin-mountain massif in Saudi Arabia that support rich biodiversity Shada Mountains (Jabal Shada) is an isolated twin-mountain massif in Saudi Arabia that support rich biodiversity

                 The Shada Mountains range is composed of Shada Alalah and Shada Asfal with the peak altitudes of 2215 and 1472 m a.s.l., respectively (1541′1542′N, 4719′5519′E). The twin mountains (Shada Alalah and Shada Asfal) are separated by Wadi Meleel valley. The Shada Alalah is a chain of hills that forms a continuous elevated crest and the Shada Asfal is a relatively gentle-sloped mountain. Influenced by topography and air currents coming from the Red Sea, the climate is cooler and wetter at higher altitudes than in the lowlands. Average annual precipitation is 148.7 mm with a monthly mean ranging from 1.5 mm in February to 37.5 mm in April. Monthly mean temperature ranges from 9.0C in January to 36.5C in August. Humidity varies from 59% in January to 24% in June.

Flora of the Shada Mountains is composed of 495 species falling in 314 genera of 76 families. About 12 and 2 of these 495 species belong to pteridophytes and gymnosperms, respectively. Poaceae and Asteraceae are the largest families with 67 and 44 species, respectively, followed by Leguminosae (28 spp.) and Malvaceae (24 spp.). The Shada Mountains contain 3.8% endemic species and 13.4% endangered species. Among the 19 endemic species, shrubs were the highest (9 spp.), followed by subshrubs (6 spp.), herbs (3 spp.) and trees (1 spp.). Forty-three (43) endangered species (17 shrubs, 12 subshrubs, herbs, and trees 7 each) accounted for 6.6% of the total endangered species in Saudi Arabia. Tropical families (e.g., Acanthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae and Sapotaceae) accounted almost half of the total species in the country.

(A) Map showing Shada Mountains and the surroundings  (B) Satellite view of the

Shada Mountains; and (C) Schematic representation of a cross section of the twin mountains.

 

Species

Family

Habit

Population strength

Acacia abyssinica

Fabaceae

Tree

Moderate

Adenium obesum

Apocynaceae

Shrub

High

Angolluma commutata

Apocynaceae

Subshrub

Poor

Anisotes trisulcus

Acanthaceae

Shrub

High

Asperagus setaceus

Asparagaceae

Shrub

Moderate

Barleria bispinosa

Acanthaceae

Climber

High

Barleria trispinosa

Acanthaceae

Shrub

Moderate

Centaurothamnus maximus

Asteraceae

Shrub

Poor

Cynoglossum bottae

Apocynaceae

Subshrub

Moderate

Indigofera trita ssp. subulata

Fabaceae

Shrub

Poor

Kickxia pseudoscoparia

Plantaginaceae

Subshrub

Poor

Parietaria umbricola

Urticaceae

Herb

Poor

Plectranthus asirensis

Lamiaceae

Shrub

High

Reichardia tingitana var. arabica

Asteraceae

Herb

Moderate

Rhynchosia variegata

Fabaceae

Subshrub

Poor

Sarcostemma arabicum

Apocynaceae

Shrub

Moderate

Silene asirensis

Caryophyllaceae

Herb

Poor

Swertia woodii

Gentianaceae

Subshrub

Poor

Trichodesma trichodesmoides var. discolor

Boraginaceae

Subshrub

Moderate

       

Near Endemics of Jabal Shada

     

Species

Family

Habit

Chorotype

Threat

Threat impact

National status

Abrus precatorius

Fabaceae

Shrub

SM

A,B

1

E

Abutilon ramosum

Malvaceae

Shrub

SM

B,D

1

V

Angolluma commutata

Apocynaceae

Subshrub

SM

B

2

V

Aneilema forsskalii

Commelinaceae

Herb

SM

B,C

2

E

Asperagus setaceus

Asparagaceae

Shrub

TR AF

B,C

2

E

Blepharis maderaspatensis

Acanthaceae

Subshrub

TR AF

B

2

E

Boscia angustifolia

Capparaceae

Tree

SM

B

2

CE

Breonadia salicina

Ribiaceae

Tree

TR AF

A,C

2

CE

Capparis tomentosa

Capparaceae

Shrub

SM

C

2

CE

Caralluma petrae

Apocynaceae

Subshrub

SM

B

2

E

Ceropegia vignaldiana

Apocynaceae

Subshrub

SM

B

1

E

Cocculus hirsutus

Menispermaceae

Shrub

TR AF

B,C

1

E

Commicarpus ambiguus

Nyctaginaceae

Subshrub

SM

B

2

V

Coptosperma graveolens

Ribiaceae

Tree

SM

B,C

2

CE

Croton lobatus

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

SM

B

1

E

Diospyros mespiliformis

Ebenaceae

Tree

SM

A,B

2

V

Ehretia obtusifolia

Boraginaceae

Tree

SM

B,D

2

E

Euphorbia inaequilatera

Euphorbiaceae

Shrub

SM

B,C

2

E

Filago pyramidata

Asteraceae

Herb

MED-IT

B,E

1

V

Gymnema sylvestris

Apocynaceae

Shrub

TR

B,C

1

CE

Indigofera trita ssp. subulata

Fabaceae

shrub

SM

B,C

1

E

Indigofera volkensii

Fabaceae

Shrub

SM

B,C,D

1

E

Lepidagathis calycina

Acanthaceae

Subshrub

SM

C,D,F

1

E

Linum usitatissimum

Linaceae

Herb

MED

B,C,D

2

E

Megalochlamys violacea

Acanthaceae

Shrub

SM

C,D,F

1

CE

Melhania velutina

Malvaceae

Shrub

SM

B,C,D

2

E

Minuartia filifolia

Caryophyllaceae

Subshrub

SM

C,D,F

2

V

Myrsine africana

Myrsinaceae

Tree

TR AF

C,D

2

CE

Ochna inermis

Ochnaceae

Shrub

TR AF

C,D

2

CE

Osyris quadripartita

Santalaceae

Shrub

MED

C,D

2

EN

Pavonia procumbens

Malvaceae

Subshrub

TR AF

C,D

2

EN

Pegolettia senegalensis

Asteraceae

Herb

SM

C,D,F

1

EN

Pollichia campestris

Caryophyllaceae

Shrub

TR AF

A,F,G

2

EN

Portulaca grandiflora

Portulacaceae

Herb

TR AF

B,C,E

1

VU

Portulaca kermesina

Portulacaceae

Herb

TR AF

B,C,E

1

VU

Rhus abyssinica

Anacardiaceae

Shrub

SM

C,D

2

EN

Rhus natalensis

Anacardiaceae

Shrub

SM

C,D

2

EN

Scutallaria rubicunda ssp. subvelutinum

Lamiaceae

Subshrub

SM

B,C,D

 1

EN

Senecio lyratus

Asteraceae

Subshrub

SM

B,C,F

1

VU

Silene asirensis

Caryophyllaceae

Subshrub

SM

B,C,E

1

EN

Vigna macrorhyncha

Fabaceae

Subshrub

TR AF

C,D

1

VU

Woodfordia fruticosa

Lythraceae

Shrub

SM

C,D

2

CE

Ziziphus mucronata

Rhamnaceae

Tree

TR AF

C,F

2

CE

 

Endangered species of Jabal Shada

 

MED, Mediterranean; MED-IT, Mediterrannean-Irano-Turanian; SM, Somali-Masai; TR-AF, Tropical Africa.

A, road development; B, eroded soil; C, poor seed production and germination; D, low moisture; E, habitat loss; F, invasive species

encroachment; 1, decline in population size; 2, very small population/very restricted distribution; CR, critically endangered; EN,

endangered; VU, vulnerable.

 

Checklist of species from Shada Mountains

Acanthaceae Anisotes trisulcus
  Barleria acanthoides
  Barleria bispinosa
  Barleria prionites
  Barleria proxima
  Barleria trispinosa
  Blepharis ciliaris
  Blepharis maderaspatensis
  Crossandra weissmanii
  Ecbolium gymnostachyum
  Ecbolium viride
  Hypoestes forsskalii
  Justicia flava
  Justicia heterocarpa
  Lepidagathis calycina
  Megalochlamys violacea
  Peristrophe paniculata
  Ruellia patula
  Ruellia prostrata
Aizoaceae Aizoon canariense
  Zaleya pentandra
Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera
  Aerva javanica
  Aerva lanata
  Amaranthus graecizans
  Chenopodium carinatum
  Chenopodium murale
  Dysphania schraderiana
  Psilotrichum gnaphalobryum
  Pupalia lappacea
Amaryllidaceae Crinum album
  Pancratium maximum
  Scadoxus multiflorus
Anacardiaceae Pistacia falcata
  Rhus natalensis
  Rhus retinorrhea
  Schinus terebenthifolius
  Searsia glutinosa ssp. abyssinica
Apiaceae Devera triradiata ssp. triradiata
  Ferula communis
  Pimpinella sp.
  Torilis arvensis
Apocynaceae Adenium obesum
  Angolluma commutata
  Angolluma wissmannii
  Calotropis procera
  Caralluma hexagona
  Caralluma penicillatus
  Caralluma petrae
  Caralluma retrospiciens
  Caralluma tuberculata
  Carissa edulis
  Ceropegia vignaldiana
  Cynanchum acutum
  Dregea schimperi
  Duvalia velutina
  Gomphocarpus fruticosus
  Gymnema sylvestris
  Huernia sp.
  Monolluma quadrangula
  Pergularia daemia
  Periploca aphylla
  Periploca somaliensis
  Sarcostemma arabicum
Asperagaceae Asperagus africanus
  Asperagus falcatus
  Asperagus setaceus
  Dipcadi viride
  Dracaena ombet
  Sansevieria ehrenbergii
  Sansevieria forsskaliana
Asphodelaceae Asphodelus fistulosus
Asteraceae Bidens biternata
  Blumea bovei
  Calendula arvensis
  Centaurothamnus maximus
  Conyza bonariensis
  Conyza hochstetteri
  Conyza incana
  Conyza stricta
  Crepis foetida
  Echinops erinaceus
  Echinops macrochaetus
  Felicia abyssinica
  Felicia dentata
  Filago desertorum
  Filago pyramidata
  Hedypnois rhagadioloides
  Helichrysum glumaceum
  Ifloga spicata
  Klenia odora
  Lactuca dissecta
  Lactuca inermis
  Lactuca serriola
  Launaea massuensis
  Launaea mucronata
  Launaea nudicaulis
  Oesteospermum vaillantii
  Onopordon heteracanthum
  Pegolettia senegalensis
  Phagnalon stenolepis
  Picris cynocarpa
  Pluchea dioscoridis
  Psiadia punctulata
  Pulicaria arabica
  Pulicaria petiolaris
  Pulicaria undulata
  Reichardia tingitana var. arabica
  Senecio flavus
  Senecio lyratus
  Sonchus oleraceus
  Sonchus tenerrimus
  Tagetus minuta
  Urospermum picroides
  Vernonia cinerascens
  Vernonia schimperi
Barbeyaceae Barbeya oleoides
Boraginaceae Brandella erythraea
  Cordia monoica
  Cordia sinensis
  Cynoglossum bottae
  Ehretia obtusifolia
  Heliotropium longiflorum
  Heliotropium strigosum
  Heliotropium zeylanicum
  Trichodesma africanum
  Trichodesma trichodesmoides var. discolor
Brassicaceae Brassica tournifortii
  Capsella bursa-pastoris
  Eruca sativa
  Farsetia longisiliqua
  Farsetia stylosa
  Matthiola longipetala
  Notoceras bicorne
  Sisymbrium erysimoides
  Sisymbrium irio
  Sisymbrium orientale
Burseraceae Commiphora gileadensis
  Commiphora habessinica
  Commiphora kataf
  Commiphora myrrha
  Commiphora quadricinta
Cactaceae Opuntia dellenii
  Opuntia ficus-indica
Cannabaceae Celtis africana
Campanulaceae Campanula edulis
  Wahlenbergia lobelioides ssp. nutabunda
Capparaceae Boscia angustifolia
  Cadaba farinosa
  Cadaba glandulosa
  Cadaba longifolia
  Capparis cartilaginea
  Capparis tomentosa
  Maerua crassifolia
  Maerua oblongifolia
Caryophyllaceae Arenaria foliacea
  Cometes abyssinica
  Minuartia filifolia
  Minuartia hybrida
  Paronychia arabica
  Paronychia chlorothrysa
  Pollichia campestris
  Polycarpon tetraphyllum
  Silene apetala var. gradiflora
  Silene asirensis
  Silene hochstetteri
  Silene linearis
  Silene schweinfurthii
  Spergula fallax
  Stellaria media
Celastraceae Maytenus parviflora
  Maytenus senegalensis
Cleomaceae Cleome gynandra
  Cleome ramosissima
Combretaceae Combretum molle
  Terminalia brownii
Commelinaceae Aneilema forsskalii
  Commelina africana
  Commelina benghalensis
  Commelina forsskalii
  Commelina nyctitropa
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus siculus ssp. Agrestis
  Evolvulus alsinoides
  Ipomoea obscura
  Ipomea sinensis ssp. blepharocepala
  Ipomoea triflora
  Seddera latifolia
  Seddera virgata
Crassulaceae Crassula schimperi
  Kalanchoe alternans
  Kalanchoe citrina
  Kalanchoe deficiens
  Kalanchoe lanceolata
  Sedum hispanicum 
  Umblicus horizontalis
Cucurbitaceae Coccinia grandis
  Cucumis prophetarum
  Kedrostis foetidissima
  Zahneria anomala
Cupressaceae Juniperus procera
Cyperaceae Cyperus alternifolius
  Cyperus bulbosus
  Cyperus neoschimperi var. viridis
  Cyperus obtusiflorus
  Cyperus rotundus
  Cyperus rubicundus
  Eliocharis geniculata
  Fimbristylis ferruginea
  Pycerus sanguinolentus
Ebenaceae Diospyros mespiliformis
  Euclea schimperi
Ephedraceae Ephedra fominea
Ericaceae Erica arborea
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha ciliata
  Acalypha fruticosa
  Acalypha indica
  Croton lobatus
  Chrozophora oblongifolia
  Euphorbia cuneata
  Euphorbia granulata
  Euphorbia inaequilatera
  Euphorbia inarticulata
  Euphrobia fractiflexa
  Euphorbia peplus
  Jatropha glauca
  Jatropha pelargoniifolia
  Ricinus communis
Gentianaceae Centaurium pulchellum
  Swertia woodii
Geraniaceae Erodium neuradifolium
  Geranium biuncinatum
  Geranium mascatense
  Pelargonium multibracteatum
Iridaceae Gladiolus dellenii
Lamiaceae Lavandula coronopifolia
  Leucas alba
  Leucas glabrata
  Leucas urticifolia
  Micromeria biflora
  Micromeria imbricata
  Ocimum filamentosum
  Ocimum forsskaolii
  Orthosiphon pallidus
  Otostegia fruticosa
  Plectranthus asirensis
  Plectranthus comosus
  Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides
  Plectranthus tenuiflorus
  Premna resinosa
  Salvia aegyptiaca
  Scutallaria rubicunda ssp. subvelutinum
Leguminosae Abrus precatorius
  Acacia abyssinica
  Acacia asak
  Acacia etbaica
  Acacia hamulosa
  Acacia origena
  Astragalus pelcinus
  Crotalaria aegyptiaca
  Crotalaria emarginella
  Crotalaria microphylla
  Delonix elata
  Glycine wightii ssp. longicauda
  Indigofera colutea
  Indigofera oblongifolia
  Indigofera hochstetteri
  Indigofera spinosa
  Indigofera trita ssp. subulata
  Indigofera volkensii
  Lotononis platicarpa
  Medicago laciniata
  Medicago polymorpha
  Ononis reclinata
  Rhynchosia malacophylla
  Rhynchosia totta
  Rhynchosia variegata
  Tamarindus indica
  Tephrosia nubica
  Trifolium arvense
  Trifolium campestre
  Vermifrux abyssinica
  Vicia sativa ssp.nigra
  Vigna macrorhyncha
  Vigna membranacea ssp. membranaceae
Linaceae Linum corymbulosum
  Linum trigynum
  Linum usitatissimum
Loranthaceae Oncocalyx schimperi
  Plicosepalus curviflorus
Lythraceae Lawsonia inermis
  Woodfordia fruticosa
Malvaceae Abutilon bidentatum
  Abutilon fruticosum
  Abutilon pannosum
  Abutilon ramosum
  Hibiscus aponeurus
  Hibiscus deflersii
  Hibiscus micranthus
  Hibiscus vitifolius
  Malva parviflora
  Pavonia burchellii
  Pavonia glechomifolia
  Sida ovata
Menispermaceae Cocculus hirsutus
  Cocculus pendulus
Molluginaceae Gisekia pharnaceoides
  Glinus lotoides
  Mollugo nudicaulis
Moraceae Dorstenia foetida
  Ficus cordata ssp. salicifolia
  Ficus glumosa
  Ficus ingens
  Ficus palmata
  Ficus psycomorus
  Ficus vasta
Nyctaginaceae Boerhavia repens
  Commicarpus ambiguus
  Commicarpus grandiflorus
  Commicarpus plumbagineus
Ochnaceae Ochna inermis
Oleaceae Jasminum grandiflorum
  Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata
Orchidaceae Eulophia guineensis
  Eulophia petersii
  Holothrix arachnoidea
Orobanchaceae Alectra parasitica
  Orobanche cernua
  Orohanche minor
  Orobanche pubescens
  Orobanche ramosa
  Striga gesnerioides
Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata
Papaveraceae Fumaria parviflora
Passifloraceae Adenia venenata
Peraceae Clutia lanceolata
Phyllanthaceae Andrachene aspera
  Fluggea virosa
  Phyllanthus maderaspatensis
  Phyllanthus rotundifolius
Plantaginaceae Antirrhinum orontium
  Kickxia acerbiana
  Kickxia aegyptiaca
  Kickxia hastata
  Kickxia pseudoscoparia
  Linaria simplex
  Plantago afra
  Plantago albicans
  Plantago amplexicaulis
  Plantago cylindrica
  Veronica anagalloides
  Veronica apaca
Plumbaginaceae Plumbago zeylanica
Poaceae Andropogon distachyos
  Anthephora nigritana
  Aristida adscensionis
  Aristida mutabilis
  Arthraxon prionodes
  Avena barbata
  Brachiaria deflexa
  Brachiaria leersiodes
  Brachiaria ovalis
  Brachiaria ramosa
  Brachypodium distchyon
  Bromus pectinatus
  Castellia tuberculata
  Catapodium rigidum
  Cenchrus ciliaris
  Cenchrus pennisetiformis
  Cenchrus setigerus
  Chrysopogon plumulosus
  Cymbopogon commutatus
  Cynodon dactylon
  Dactyloctenium scindicum
  Dichanthium annulatum
  Digitaria ciliaris
  Digitaria nodosa
  Digitaria velutina
  Echinochloa colona
  Eleusine multiflora
  Elionurus royleanus
  Ennaepogon desvauxii
  Ennaepogon lophotrichus
  Enneapogon persicus
  Enteropogon macrostachyos
  Eragrostis aspera
  Eragrostis barrelieri
  Eragrostis ciliaris
  Eragrostis papposa
  Gastridium pleoides
  Harpachene schimperi
  Hyparrhenia hirta
  Lamarckia aurea
  Leptothrium senegalense
  Melanocenchris abyssinica
  Melinis repens
  Oropetium minimum
  Panicum atrosanguineum
  Panicum coloratum
  Panicum maximum
  Pennisetum setaceum
  Polypogon monsepeliensis
  Polypogon viridis
  Rostraria pumila
  Saccharum spontaneum
  Sehima nervosum
  Setaria verticillata
  Setaria viridis
  Sporobolus ioclados
  Sporobolus pellucidus
  Stipagrostis ciliata
  Stipagrostis foexiana
  Stipagrostis uniplumis
  Tetrapogon cenchriformis
  Tetrapogon tenellus
  Tetrapogon villosus
  Themeda triandra
  Tragus berteronianus Schultes
  Tricholaena teneriffae
  Tripogon africanus
  Tripogon montanus
  Vulpia muralis
Polygalaceae Polygala abyssinica
  Polygala erioptera
  Polygala senensis
Polygonaceae Oxygonum sinuatum
  Rumex nervosus
  Rumex vesicarius
Portulacaceae Portulaca grandiflora
  Portulaca kermesina
  Portulaca oleracea
  Portulaca quadrifida
  Talinum portulacifolium
Primulaceae Anagallis arvensis
  Myrsine africana
  Samolus valerandi
Pteridophytes  
Adiantaceae Adiantum incisum
  Onychium divaricatum
Aspleniaceae Asplenium aethiopicum
  Asplenium trichomanes
  Asplenium officinarum
  Cheilanthes coriacea
  Cheilanthes marantae
  Cheilanthes pteridioides
  Cheilanthes vellea
Pteridaceae Actinopteris semiflabellata
Selaginellaceae Selaginella imbricata
Ranunculaceae Clematis hirsuta
Resedaceae Caylusea hexagyna
  Ochradenus baccatus
Rhamnaceae Rhamnus disperma
  Rhamnus lycoides
  Sageretia thea
  Ziziphus mucronata
  Ziziphus spina-christi
Rubiaceae Breonadia salicina
  Coptosperma graveolens
  Galium aparine
  Galium setaceum ssp. decaisnei
  Kohautia caespitosa
  Oldenlandia capensis
  Pavetta longiflora
  Pentas lanceolata
  Psydrax schimperiana
  Pyrostria phyllanthoidea
  Sherardia arvensis
  Tarenna graveolens ssp. arabica
  Valantia hispida
Rutaceae Teclea nobilis
Salvadoraceae Dobera glabra
  Salvadora persica
Santalaceae Osyris quadripartita
Sapindaceae Cardiospermum corindum
  Dodonaea angustifolia
Sapotaceae Mimusops laurifolia
Scrophulariaceae Buddleja polystachya
  Craterostigma pumilum
  Lindenbergia indica
  Scrophularia arguta
  Verbascum bottae
Solanaceae Lycium shawii
  Nicotiana glauca
  Solanum forsskalii
  Solanum incanum
  Solanum nigrum
  Solanum schimperianum
  Solanum villosum
  Withania somnifera
Sterculiaceae (Malvaceae sub fam. Dombeyieae) Melhania ovata
  Melhania philippsiae
  Melhania velutina
Stilbaceae Nuxia oppositifolia
Tiliaceae (Malvaceae sub fam. Grewioideae) Corchorus depressus
  Corchorus trilocularis
  Grewia erythraea
  Grewia tembensis
  Grewia tenax
  Grewia velutina
  Grewia villosa
  Triumfetta flavescens
  Triumfetta heterocarpa
Typhaceae Typha domingensis
Urticaceae Forsskaolea tenacissima
  Forsskaolea viride
  Parietaria alsinifolia
  Parietaria umbricola
  Urtica urens
Verbenaceae Lantana rugosa
  Lantana viburnoides
Vitaceae Cissus quadrangularis
  Cissus rotundifolius
  Cyphostemma digitatum
Xanthorrhoeaceae Aloe rubroviolacea
  Aloe sabea
Zygophyllaceae Fagonia bruguieri
  Tribulus terrestris
 

Page written and maintained by Dr. Jacob Thomas, Herbarium, Dept. of Botany & Microbiology, King Saud University,

Riyadh, KSA

Immanuel Marthoma church Paruthipara Thiruvananthapuram