Asir Mountains

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         The vegetation of Asir is very interesting and consists of a variety of species. The west facing escarpment and the top are subjected to fog/cloud condensation in addition to seasonal rainfall. The mountains which have an altitude of about 3100 m have three or more layers of vegetation. The top layer consists of Juniperus procera, Nuxia congesta, Tarchonanthus camphoratus, Maesa lanceolata, Teclea nobilis, etc. The second layer consists of small trees or tall shrubs such as Olea europaea, Buddleja polystachya, Grewia spp. Dodonaea angustifolia, Debregeasia saenab, Carissa edulis, Ehretia obtusifolia, Canthium spp., etc. The third and fourth layer is formed of a number of dwarf shrubs and herbs. The density of the vegetation is varies from very dense in narrow west facing gullies to open and sparse on exposed slopes.  The density of Juniperus trees decreases eastwards of the escarpments.  On the eastern slopes of the mountains, the vegetation is sparse, mostly dominated by Acacia trees and some other xerophytes such as Euphorbia, Adenia, Aloe, etc.

Following is a consolidated list of species present in various habitats of the Asir Mountains.  This list is based on preliminary studies conducted in the area, and is not necessarily reflecting the true characteristics of the Asir Mountains.

A. Low altitude areas (Hillocks and Foot hills- 400-1000m).

a.  Slopes

Acacia abyssinica

Acacia asak

Acacia ehrenbergiana

Acacia etbaica

Acacia hamulosa

Acacia mellifera

Acacia tortilis

Adenium obesum

Aerva javanica

Anisotes trisulcus

Barleria bispinosa

Berchemia discolor

Buddleja polystachya

Cadaba glandulosa

Combretum molle

Commiphora kataf

Commiphora myrrha

Euphorbia cuneata

Gomphocarpus sinaicus

Grecia tenax

Justicia flava

Maerua crassifolia

Premna resinosa

Pupalia lappacea

 

b. Runnels, disturbed ground, plains

 Abutilon spp.

Aloe officinalis

Argemone mexicana

Calotropis procera

Ceropegia spp.

Cordia ovalis

Blepharis ciliaris

Datyloctenium scindicum

Heliotropium longiflorum

Ricinus communis

Senna italica

Sida ovata

Solanum incanum

  

C. Altitude between 1600-2200 m

 Abutilon bidentatum

Acacia albida

Acacia etbaica

Acacia negrii

Buddleja polystachya

Acacia seyal

Achillea biebersteinii

Acokanthera schimperi

Aloe spp.

Argyrolobium arabicum

Asparagus africanus

Barleria acanthodes

Barleria proxima

Cadia purpurea

Campanula edulis

Cluytia myricoides

Commicarpus grandiflorus

Conyza incana

Cordia africana

Dichrostachys cinerea

Diospyros mespiliformis

Dodonaea angustifolia

Euclea schimperi

Euphorbia ammak

Gomphocarpus fruticosus

Heliotropium longiflorum

Hyperium rovolutum

Jasminum grandiflorum

Justicia flava

Justicia odora

Kleinia odora

Lycium shawii

Maerua crassifolia

Moringa peregrine

Olea chrysophylla

Otostegia fruticosa

Plicosepalus curviflorus

Pulicaria glutinosa

Pulicaria schimperi

Rhus retinorrhoea

Rosa abyssinica

Ruellia patula

Senecio asirensis

Teclea nobilis

Trichodesma calathiforme

Verbascum yemense

 

E. Rainshadow regions of the Eastern slopes (between 1500-2000 m

Acacia ehrenbergiana

Acacia seyal

Acacia tortilis

Adenium obesum

Aerva javanica

Calotropis procera

Citrullus colocynthis

Cocculus pendulus

Cordia sinensis

Ecbolium gymnostachym

Echinops sp.

Euphorbia spp.

Indigofera spinosa

Lycium shawii

Salvadora persica

Ziziphus spina-christi

B. Altitude between 1000-1600 m

a. Slopes

Acacia asak

Acacia etbaica

Acacia tortilis

Acalypha racemosa

Adenia venenata

Anisotes trisulcus

Barleria trispinosa

Blepharis ciliaris

Buddleja polystachya

Cenchrus ciliaris

Danthoniopsis barbata

Dichrostachys cinerea

Eragrostis papposa

Euclea schimperi

Ficus cordata ssp. salicifolia

Ficus plamata

Ficus sycamorus

Hibiscus diflersii

Hyparrhenia hirta

Kleinia odora

Leucas glabrata

Pennisetum setaceum

Polygala tinctoria

Pulicaria crispa

Tephrosia pumila

Terminalia brownie

Tetrapogon villosus

 

b. Water course community

Acacia laeta

Aloe sabea

Alternanthera pungens

Astragalus atropilisulus

Astragalus corrugatus

Centaurea pseudosinaica

Cissus rotundifolia

Coccinea grandis

Combretum molle

Commicarpus plumbagineus

Datura stramonium

Picus cordata ssp. salicifolia

Ficus vasta

Hibiscus vitifolius

Nuxia oppositifolia

Ocimum americanum

Plumbago zeylanica

Tamarindus indica

Themeda triandra

Verbascum bottae

Withania somnifera

Ziziphus spina-christi

 

D. High altitude areas ( between 2200-3100 m)

Acacia negrii

Achyranthes aspera

Anagyris foetida

Anarrhinum orientale

Asparagus africanus

Cadia purpurea

Celtis africana

Cenchrus ciliaris

Centaurothamnus maximum

Crinum album

Dodonaea angustifolia

Dracaena serrulata

Juniperus procera

Lavandula dentata

Lonicera etrusca

Marrubium vulgare

Maytenus undata

Micromeria imbricate

Minuartia filifolia

Nepeta deflersiana

Nuxia oppositifolia

Olea chrysophylla

Otostegia fruticosa

Pennisetum villosum

Pistacia falcata

Rumex nervosus

Scadoxus multiflorus

Senecio asirensis

Senecio hadiensis

Tagetus minuta

Teucrium yemense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

site designed and maintained by dr. jacob thomas, dept. of botany & microbiology, king saud university, riyadh.