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                       The Jizan Province is situated in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, between 160 20` N to 170 40` N and 410 55` E to 430 20` E. The region has about 260 km long coastal area on the western side, stretching from Al-Muwassam in the south to Ash Shuqaiq in the north. There are a few islands (Farasan Islands) in the Red Sea, 50 km. off the Jizan coast, an archipelago of several big and small islands, ranging from 369 km2 to less than 5 km2. The Jazan region can be broadly divided into Coastal zone, Tihama, the Escarpments and the Farasan Islands. The first two regions were part of the oldest agricultural centres of the Arabian Peninsula and composed of wadis, mountains and plateaus. In ancient times, these areas were regarded as the gateway for both crop plants and early travellers from the African and Asian countries. Although the economic boom in the Kingdom from crude oil has diminished importance of the cultivation in the Jazan Region, the well-maintained agricultural terraces along the slopes of southern Hijaz Mountains still support the growth of a wide range of indigenous cash crops including Sorghum, Coffee, Millets, etc.. Climate has an important role in shaping the vegetation cover of the entire escarpments. The area contains a significant proportion of species of the flora of Saudi Arabia, including several endemic and rare species. As the area is located in the south-western tip of the country, the rich and varied flora present in the mountains has a close proximity with the floras of Yemen and North-East African counties

            Coastal zone:  This area lies between the Red Sea and the Escarpments, with a maximum width of 80 km in the west-east direction and covers about 24, 000 km2. The entire coastal line of Jazan Region, stretching about 260 km in the north-south direction, is more or less fringed with many inlets and creeks ("Mersas" or Khawrs).  Although mangroves can be seen in the entire coastal region of Jazan Province, the longest concentrations are in Khawr Abu Saba (45 km) and Midaya (30 km), while the widest areas are in Midaya and Besari with an average width of 150m. Mangrove population in the mainland consists of a monospecific population (Avicennia marina) whereas in Farasan Islands and in one or two pockets along the Red Sea coast, Avicennia marina can be seen growing along with another mangrove, Rhizophora mucronata Lam.  Six sea weeds (Cymodoca rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Halodule australis (=univervis), Halophila ovalis, H. stipulaceae and Thalassia hemprichii) have been reported from areas between Muwassam and Ras Al-Tarfa, most of which could be observed in between 1 m to 300 m away from the sea-shore. Sabkhas or salt pans that extend along the entire western coast are dominated by Suaeda monoica, Halopeplis perfoliata, Sporobolus spicatus, Aeluropus lagopoides, Cressa cretica, Tamarix nilotica, Zygophyllum simplex, Desmostachya bipinnata, Cyperus conglomeratus, etc.



Sand dunes and plains

                  Dunes,  plains and wadis make up some of the major land-forms in Tihama region. Common plants of these areas include Abutilon bidentatun, Dipterygium glaucum, Indigofera argentea, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Panicum turgidum, Pennisetum divisum, Suaeda monoica, and  Tephrosia purpurea, whereas open plains are dominated by Acacia tortilis, Ziziphus spina-christi, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Indigofera spinosa, Aerva javanica, Salvadora persica, Senna italica, Calotropis procera and Capparis decidua.



                There are about 15 main major wadis crossing the Tihama region of Jazan Province. During rainy days, flash floods, originating from the highlands, pass through the wadis in an east to west direction and finally end in Red Sea. Vegetation in wadis of Central Tihama is generally scattered. Dominating plants of this area include: Hyphaene thebaica, Phoenix dactylifera, Desmostachya bipinnata, Tamarix nilotica, Abutilon bidentatum, Senna alexandrina, Acacia ehrenbergiana, etc



Foot hills and escarpments

Vegetation in the mountain areas is not noticeably rich as against to the Asir Mountains, north of Jizan province. However, scattered and occasionally dense vegetation can be observed on open and eroded slopes. The foothills are characterized by rocky slopes, cliffs and crevices with granite, sandy soil whereas the hilly areas are generally formed of rocky cliffs, rocky ridges, granite boulders, granite outcrops, granite sandstones and crevices. The highest peaks of the mountains are heavily inhabited with new houses and agriculture lands added every year. The Fayfa Mountains is one of the important mountains of Jazan Province, holding a relatively rich and diverse flora. Elevations of these undulating mountains vary from 900 m (Al-Ghardha) to about 2000 m (Al-Abseeya); and extend over several kilometers along a roughly north-south axis. The eastern slopes are the rain shadow regions and are with less species diversity. However, the west facing slopes of the mountains are steep and densely vegetated. Dominant members of the plant community between 1500-2000m include Acacia mellifera, A.seyal, Juniperus procera, Carissa edulis, Euclea schimperi, Ficus sycomorus, Catha edulis, Dracaena ombet, etc. Most of the terrain of  Fayfa Mountains were converted into agricultural terraces in the past. These areas are now abandoned and are now replaced by the secondary vegetation or by native or exotic weeds such as Tridax procumbens, Chloris barbata, etc or invasive species such as Opuntia dillenii and O. ficus-indica.   


Though areas in and around the escarpments are heavily inhabited, the mountains of Fayfa support a rich flora, which is more or less similar to that of Yemen highlands and nearby countries in north east African countries. The west facing slopes, that receives continuous moisture-laden wind from the Red Sea, hold several micro hotspots in several gullies and runnels and sustain a number of endemics and several rare or endangered species; these include a few remaining populations of critically endangered species such as Dracaena ombet, Dorstenia foetida, Ceropegia spp., etc.


Approximately 858 wild species in 441 genera of 98 families have been reported from the Jazan Region, which is about 37.18 % of the total species present in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 15 are Pteridophytes, 1 is a Gymnosperm, 733 are Dicots and 109 are Monocots. Poaceae contains the highest number of species followed by Papilionaceae with 68 species and Asteraceae with 58 species.



Acrostichum aureum L.

Actinopteris radiata (Swartz) Link

Actinopteris semiflabellata Pichi - Sermoli

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Adiantum incisum Forssk. Fl.

Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Becherer

Asplenium officinarum L.

Cheilanthes coriacea Decne.

Cheilanthes pteridioides (Reich.) C. Chr.

Hypodematium crenatum (Forssk.) Kuhn

Marselia aegyptica Willd.  

Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv.

Pteris vittata L.

Selaginella imbricata (Forssk.) Spring

Selaginella yemensis (Swartz) Spring




Cupressus sempervirens (Cultivated)

Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl.,


Angiosperms- Dicots


Anisotes triculcus (Forssk.) Nees

Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders

Barleria bispinosa (Forssk.) Vahl

Barleria hochstetteri Nees

Barleria prionites L. ssp. appressa (Forssk.) Brummit & J.R.I. Wood

Barleria proxima Lindau.

Barleria trispinosa (Forssk.) Vahl,

Blepharis ciliaris (L.) B.L. Burtt,

Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) Roth

Crossandra wissmanii O. Schwartz

Ecbolium gymnostachyum (Nees) Milne-Redh.

Ecbolium viride (Forssk.) Alston

Hypoestes forskalei (Vahl) Soland. ex Roem. & Schult.

Justicia caerulea Forssk.

Justicia flava (Vahl) Vahl.

Justicia heterocarpa T. Anders

Justicia odora (Forssk.) Vahl

Lepidagathis scariosa Nees

Monechma debile (Forssk.) Nees

Pedalium murex Royen ex L.

Peristrophe cernua Nees

Peristrophe paniculata (Forssk.) Brummitt,

Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet,

Reullia prostrata Poir.

Ruellia grandiflora (Forssk.) Blatt.

Ruellia patula Jacq. Misc.

Sesamum indicum L.



Aizoon canariensis L.

Gisekia pharnaceoides L.

Glinus lotoides L.

Limeum obovatum Vicary

Mollugo cerviana (L.) Seringe

Mollugo nudicaulis Lam.,

Sesuvium sesuvioidus (Fenzl) Verdc.

Trianthema crystallina (Forssk.) Vahl

Trianthema portulacastrum L.

Trianthema sheilae A.G. Miller

Trianthema triquetra Rottle ex Willd.

Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey



Celosia trigyna L.,

Amaranthus caudatus L.

Amaranthus hybridus L.

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Amaranthus graecizans L. ssp. silvestris (Vill.) Heukels.

Amaranthus sparganiocephalus Thell.

Amaranthus lividus L.

Amaranthus viridis L.

Digera muricata (L.) Mart.

Pupalia lappacea (L.) A. Juss.

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schultes

Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schultes,

Nothosaerva brachiata (L.) Wt.

Achyranthes aspera L.

Alternanthera pungens Kunth

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.



Rhus abyssinica Hochst. ex Oliv.

Rhus retinorrhaea Steud. ex Oliv.

Schinus molle L.,

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

Trichilia emetica Vahl,

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Melia azedarach L.



Annona squamosa L.


Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)

Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link,

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,

Pimpinella eriocarpa Banks et Sol.

Peucedanum inaccessum C.C. Townsend



Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

Acokanthera schimperi (DC.) Oliv.

Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl Symb.

Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult.



Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.




Angolluma deflersiana (Lavr.) Plowes

Angolluma eremastrum (O.Schwartz) Plowes

Angolluma wissmannii (Schwartz) Plowes

Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br.

Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Benth. & Hook.f.

Caralluma sinaica (Decne.) Berger,

Caralluma subulata (Forssk.) Decne.

Ceropegia arabica H. Huber,

Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.

Ceropegia rupicola Defl.

Ceropegia tihamana Chaudhary & Lavranos

Ceropegia variegata Decne.

Cynanchum gerrardii (Harv.) Liede

Desmidorchis penicillatus (Defl.) Plowes

Desmidorchis retrospiciens (Forssk.) Plowes

Desmidorchis shadhbanus (Lavr.) Lavr.

Desmidorchis solenophorus (Lavr.) Lavr.

Duvalia velutina Lavranos

Glossonema boveanum (Decne.) Decne.,

Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) Ait. f.

Gomphocarpus sinaicus Boiss.,

Huernia laevis J.R.I.Wood

Kanahia laniflora (Forssk.) R. Br.

Leptadenia arborea (Forssk.) Schweinf.

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne.

Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk.) Plowes

Pentatropis nivalis (J.F. Gmel.) D. V. Field and J.R.I. Wood

Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov.

Periploca somaliense Browica

Periploca visciformis (Vatke) K. Schum.

Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R. Br.



Ageratum conyzoides L.

Artemisia abysinthium L.

Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff.

Bidens pilosa L.

Blumea bovei (DC.) Vatke,

Cineraria abyssinica Schi.-Bip. Ex A. Rich.

Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.

Conyza hochstetteri Sch. Bip. ex. A. Rich.

Conyza incana Willd.

Conyza pyrrhopappa Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich.

Conyza stricta Willd.

Crepis ruepellii Sch.-Bip.

Echinops erinaceus Kit Tan,

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Felicia dentata (A. Rich.) Dandy

Filago desertorum Pomel Nour.

Filago pyramidata L.

Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) Mohr.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Gnaphalium luteo-album L.

Helichrysum glumaceum DC.

Kleinia anteuphorbium (L.) DC.

Kleinia pendula (Forssk.) DC.

Lactuca dissecta D. Don.

Lactuca inermis Forssk.

Lactuca serriola L.

Laggera aurita (L.f.) Sch.-Bip.

Laggera decurrens (Vahl) F.N. Hepper & J.R.I. Wood

Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) Beauverd

Launaea massauensis (Fresen.) Sch. Bip. ex Kuntze

Launaea mucronata ssp. cassiniana (Jaub.& Spach.) N. Kilian

Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal

Onopordum heteracanthum C.A. Mey.,

Phagnalon stenolepis Chiov

Parthenium hysterophorus L.

Picris cyanocarpa Boiss.

Picris scabra Forssk.

Pluchea dioscoridis (L.) DC.

Psiadia punctulata (DC.) Vatke

Pulicaria jaubertii Gamal El Din

Pulicaria petiolaris Jaub. & Spach.

Pulicaria schimperi DC.

Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A. May.

Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth

Senecio asirensis Boulos & J.R.I. Wood.

Senecio bojeri DC.

Senecio hadiensis Forssk.

Senecio lyratus Forssk.

Sonchus oleraceus L.

Sonchus saudensis Boulos

Sonchus tenerrimus L.

Tagetes minuta L.,

Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.

Tridax procumbens L.

Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) A. Gray.

Vernonia cinerascens Sch. Bip.

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

Vernonia schimperi Sch. - Bip. ex Hochst.

Xanthium spinosum L.

Xanthium strumarium L.



Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss.,

Arnebia hispidissima (Lehm.) DC.

Cordia africana Lam.

Cordia sinensis Lam.

Cynoglossum bottae Defl.

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.

Echium arabicum R. Mill.

Ehretia abyssinica R. Br. ex Fresen.

Ehretia obtusifolia Hochst. ex DC.

Heliotropium aegyptiacum Lehm.

Heliotropium arbainense Fresen.

Heliotropium chaudharyanum Al-Turki, Omer & Ghafoor

Heliotropium jizanense Al-Turki; Omar & Ghafoor,

Heliotropium lasiocarpum Fisch. et C.A. Meyer.

Heliotropium longiflorum Steud. & Hochst. ex Bunge.

Heliotropium pterocarpum (DC.) Steud. & Hochst. ex Bunge.

Heliotropium ramosissimum (Lehm.) Sieb. ex DC.

Heliotropium strigosum Willd.

var. strigosum

var. cordofanum (Hochst.) Schweinf. ex Blatter

Heliotropium zeylanicum (Burm.f.) Lam.

Trichodesma africanum (L.) R. Br.

Trichodesma ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex Boiss.

Trichodesma trichodesmoides (Bunge) Guerke


Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.

Brassica tournefortii Guan

Erucastrum arabicum Fischer & C. Meyer

Raphanus staivus L.

Schouwia purpurea (Forssk.) Schweinf.

Lepidium sativum L.

Lepidium bonariense L.

Lepidium africanum (Burm.f.) DC.

Farsetia aegyptia Turra,

Farsetia longisiliqua Decne.

Arabis alpina L.

Sisymbrium irio L.

Sisymbrium orientale L.

Sisymbrium erysimoides Desf.



Commiphora erythraea (Ehrenb.) Engler.

Commiphora kataf (Forssk.) Engl.

Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl.

Commiphora quadricincta Schweinf.,

Commiphora habessinica (Berg.) Engl.

Commipora gileadensis (L.) C. Chr.



Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl.) Haw.

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller.

Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.



Campanula edulis Forssk.



Cleome scaposa DC.

Cleome brachycarpa Vahl ex DC.

Cleome noeana Boiss. ssp. Brachystyla Chamberlain & Lamond.

Cleome tenella L.f.

Cleome viscosa L.

Cleome gynandra L.

Cleome paradoxa R. Br. ex DC.

Dipterygium glaucum Decne.

Maerua crassifolia Forssk.

Maerua triphylla A. Rich.

Maerua oblongifolia (Forssk.) A. Rich.

Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew

Capparis spinosa L.

Capparis cartilaginea Decne.

Cadaba glandulosa Forssk.

Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk.

Cadaba farinosa Forssk.

Cadaba longifolia DC.



Cometes abyssinica R. Br.

Pollichia campestris Ait.

Paronychia chlorothyrsa Murb.

Polycarpaea repens (Forssk.) Aschers. & Schweinf.

Polycarpaea spicata Arn

Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L.

Spergula fallax (Lowe) Krause

Minuartia filifolia (Forssk.) Mattfeld

Arenaria foliacea Turril,

Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.

Silene apetala Willd.

Silene schweinfurthii Rohrab.

Silene colorata Poiret, Voy. Barb. 2: 163 (1789). ssp. oliveriana (Otth.) Muschl.

Gypsophila capillaris (Forssk.) C. Christ.



Maytenus arbutifolia (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Wilczek

Maytenus forsskaoliana Sebsebe

Maytenus sidamoensis (Sebsebe) S. Abedin

Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell,

Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock.

Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl.



Kedrostis gijef (J.F. Gmel.) C. Jeffrey

Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn.

Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottler) Hook. f. ex C.B.

Corallocarpus schimperi (Naud.) Hook. f.

Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond.,

Zehneria anomala C. Jeffrey

Cucumis pustulatus Hook. f.,

Cucumis prophetarum L.

Cucumis dipsaceus Spach,

Cucumis melo L.,

Ctenolepis cerasiformis (Stocks) Hook. F.

Momordica balsamina L.,

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

Coccinea grandis (L.) Voigt



Agriophyllum minus Fischer & C. Meyer ex Ledeb.

Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric) K. Koch

Atriplex farinosa Forssk.

Atriplex halimus L.

Chenopodium album L.

Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

Chenopodium carinatum R. Br.

Chenopodium fasciculosum Aellen

Chenopodium murale L.

Chenopodium schraderianum Schult.

Cornulaca ehrenbergii Asch

Halopeplis perfoliata (Forssk.) Bunge ex Asch.

Salsola kali

Salsola spinescens Moq

Suaeda aegyptiaca (Hasselq.) Soh.

Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J. Gmel

Suaeda vermiculata Forssk. ex J. Gmelin



Combretum aculeatum Vent.

Combretum molle R. Br. ex D. Don.

Terminalia brownii Fresen.



Astripomoea A. Meeuse

Astripomoea malvacea (Klotzsch) Meeuse var. malvacea

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Convolvulus austro-aegyptiacus R. Mill. Abdallah & Saad

Convolvulus glomeratus Choisy,

Convolvulus pilosellifolius Desr.

Convolvulus prostratus Forssk.,

Convolvulus rhyniospermus Hochst. ex Chiosy

Convolvulus siculus L.

Cressa cretica L.,

Cuscuta planiflora Tenore

Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

Ipomoea eriocarpa R. Br

Ipomoea hochstetteri House

Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br

Ipomoea sinensis (Desr.) Choisy ssp.blepharosepala (A. Rich.) Meeuse

Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso

Seddera arabica (Forssk.) Choisy

Seddera latifolia Hochst. & Steud. ex Hochst.

Seddera virgata Hochst. & Steud. ex Hochst.



Crassula schimperi Fisch. & C.A. Meyer

Crassula alba Forssk.

Kalanchoe lanceolata (Forssk.) Pers.

Kalanchoe laciniata (L.) DC.

Kalanchoe citrina Schweinf

Kalanchoe alternans (Vahl) Pers

Kalanchoe deficiens (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf.

Kalanchoe glaucescens Britten.

Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw.



Dracaena ombet Kotschy & Peyr.

Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf-ex Baker



Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC.

Euclea schimperi (DC.) Dandy.



Andrachne telephioides L.

Andrachne aspera Spreng.

Flueggea leucopyrus Willd.

Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L.

Phyllanthus nummularifolius Poir.

Phyllanthus rotundifolius Willd.

Phyllanthus fraternus Webster

Clutia lanceolata Forssk.

Chrozophora oblongifolia (Del.) A. Juss. ex Spreng.,

Ricinus communis L.,

Erythrococca abyssinica Pax .

Acalypha lanceolata Willd.

Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. var. fruticosa

var. villosa Pax ex Hutch.

Acalypha ciliata Forssk.

Acalypha indica L.

Acalypha racemosa Wall. ex Baill,

Tragia pungens (Forssk.) Muell. - Arg.

Dalechampia scandens L. var. cordofana (Webb.)muell.,-Arg. DC.

Jatropha glauca Vahl,

Jatropha pelargoniifolia Courb.

Jatropha curcas L. Sp.

Croton lobatus L.,

Croton bonplandianus Baill.,

Euphorbia hirta L.

Euphorbia hypercifolia L.

Euphorbia scordifolia Jacq.

Euphorbia granulata Forssk.

Euphorbia inequilatera Sond.

Euphorbia arabica Hochst. & Steud. ex Anders.

Euphorbia chamaepeplus Boiss. & Gaill.

Euphorbia cuneata Vahl

Euphorbia ammak Schweinf.

Euphorbia parciramulosa Schweinf.

Euphorbia cactus Ehrenb. ex Boiss.

Euphorbia fractiflexa S. Carter & J.R.I. Wood

Euphorbia inarticulata Schweinf.

Euphorbia triaculeata Frossk.



Oncoba spinosa Forssk.



Fumaria abyssinica Hammar

Fumaria parviflora Lam.



Enicostema axillare (Lamk.) Raynal

Centaurium maire Zeltner



Geranium mascatense Boiss.

Geranium ocellatum Camb.

Geranium trilophum Boiss.

Geranium biuncinatum Kokwaro

Pelargonium multibracteatum Hochst.



Hydnora johannis Beccari



Hypericum annulatum Moris



Cassytha filiformis L.



Basilicum polystachyon (L.) Moench.

Endostemon tereticaulis (Poir.) Ashby

Lavandula atriplicifolia Benth.

Lavandula citriodora A. Miller.

Lavandula coronopifolia Poir.

Lavandula pubescens Decne.

Leucas alba (Forssk.) Sebald.

Leucas glabrata (Vahl) R. Br.

Leucas martinicensis R. Br.

Leucas urticifolia (Vahl) R. Br.

Micromeria abyssinica Benth.

Micromeria imbricata (Forssk.) O. Chr.

Ocimum americanum L.

Ocimum basilicum L.,

Ocimum filamentosum Forssk.

Ocimum forsskalii Benth.,

Ocimum serpyllifolium Forssk.

Orthosiphon pallidus Royle ex Benth.

Orthosiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Steesen

Otostegia fruticosa (Forssk.) Penz., ssp. schimperi

Plectranthus asirensis J.R.I. Wood

Plectranthus barbatus Andres

Salvia aegyptiaca L.,

Teucrium yemense Deflers.



Abrus bottae Deflers.

Abrus precatorius L.

Acacia abyssinica Hochst. ex Benth.

Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd.

Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne

Acacia etbaica Schweinf.

Acacia gerrardii Benth

Acacia hamulosa Benth.

Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth.

Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf.

Acacia origena Asfaw

Acacia seyal Del.

Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne

Alysicarpus glumaceus (Vahl) DC.

Alysicarpus rugosus (Willd.) DC.

Argyrolobium arabicum (Decne.) Jaub. & Spach

Astragalus atropilosulus (Hochst.) Bunge

Astragalus vogelii (Webb) Bornm.,

Cadia purpurea (Picc.) Ait.

Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene

Chamaecrista nigricans (Vahl) Greene

Clitoria ternatea L.

Crotalaria incana L.

Crotalaria microphylla Vahl,

Crotalaria pycnostachya Benth.

Crotalaria retusa L.

Crotalaria senegalensis (Pers.) DC.

Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.

Delonix elata (L.) Gamble

Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.

Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn.

Dolichos trilobus L

Glycine wightii

             ssp. wightii

             var. longicauda (Schweinf.) Verd.

Indigofera arabica Jaub. & Spach

Indigofera argentea Burm.f.

Indigofera arrecta Hochst. ex A. Rich.,

Indigofera articulata Gouan,

Indigofera brachyphylla Al-Turki

Indigofera coerulea Roxb.

          var. coerulea   

          var. occidentalis Gillet & Ali

Indigofera colutea (Burm.f.) Merr.

Indigofera hochstetteri Baker

Indigofera linifolia (L.f.) Retz.

Indigofera oblongifolia Forssk.

Indigofera semitrijuga Forssk

Indigofera spicata Forssk.,

Indigofera spinosa Forssk.

Indigofera tinctoria L.

Indigofera trita L.f.    

              var. scabra (Roth) Ali 

              var. subulata (Poir.)Ali

              var. maffeii (Chiov.) Ali

Indigofera volkensii Taub in Engl.

Lablab purpureus (L.) Sw.

Lotus arabicus L.,

Lotus gebelia Vent.

Lotus halophilus Boiss. & Sprun

Macrotyloma axillare (E. Mey.) Verdc.

Medicago lupulina L.

Melilotus alba Medic.

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.

Melitotus indica (L.) All.

Phaseolus lunatus L.,

Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.

Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.

Pterolobium stellatum (Forssk.) Brenan

Rhynchosia buramensis Hutch. & Bruce

Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC.

                   var. minima     

                   var. nuda (DC.)    

                   var. memnonia (Delile) Cooke

Rhynchosia pulverulenta Stocks

Rhynchosia totta (Thunb.) DC.

Rhynchosia variegata (Defl.) J.R.I. Wood

Senna alexandrina Mill.

Senna holosericea (Fresen) Greuter

Senna italica Mill. Gard.

Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link,

Sesbania leptocarpa DC.

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.

ssp. caesia (Chiov.) Verdc.

Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston

Tamarindus indica L.

Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth.) Arn

Tephrosia apollinea (Del.) DC.

Tephrosia heterophylla Vatke,

Tephrosia nubica (Boiss.) Bak. ssp. arabica

Tephrosia pumila (Lam.) Pers.,

Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.,

Tephrosia subtriflora Hochst. ex Bak.

Tephrosia uniflora Pers.

Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng. subsp. arabicus Verdc.

Teramnus repens (Taub.) Baker f. ssp. gracilis (Chiov.) Verd.

Trigonella anguina Del.

Vermifrux abyssinica (A. Rich.)

Vicia sativa L.

Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal

Vigna ambacensis Welw. ex Bak.

Vigna membranacea A. Rich

Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.



Linum corymbulosum. Reichb.

Linum trigynum L.



Buddleja polystachya Fresen.

Nuxia oppositifolia (Hochst.) Benth.



Plicosepalus curviflorus (Benth. ex Oliv.) Tiegh.,

Phragmanthera austroarabica A.G. Mill. & Nyberg.

Tapinanthus globiferus (A. Rich.) Tieghem.



Lawsonia inermis L.

Ammania baccifera L.



Caucanthus edulis Forssk.



Abutilon ramosum Guill. & Perr

Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.

Abutilon figarianum Webb,

Abutilon hirtum (Lamk.) Sw.

Abutilon bidentatum A. Rich.

Abutilon pannosum (G. Forst.) Schlecht

Abutilon muticum (Del. ex DC.) Sw.

Fioria dictyocarpa (Hochst.) Mattei

Fioria vitifolius (L) Mattei.

Gossypium hirsutum L.

Hibiscus cannabinus L.

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Hibiscus micranthus L.f.

                  var. rigidus (L.f.) Cufod

Hibiscus ovalifolius (Forssk.) Vahl,

Hibiscus deflersii Schweinf. ex Cufod.

Hibiscus aponeurus Sprague & Hutch

Hibuscus purpureus Forssk.

Hibiscus palmatus Forssk.,

Hibiscus aristaevalvis Garcke

Malva parviflora L.

Pavonia burchellii (DC.) R.A.

Pavonia procumbens (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) Wallp.

Pavonia arabica Hochst. & Steud

Senra incana Cav.

Sida spinosa L.

Sida alba L.

Sida alii S. Abedin

Sida ovata Forssk.



Azadirachta indica (Cultivated)

Melia azadirach (Cultivated)



Cocculus pendulus (J.R. & G. Forst.) Diels.

Tinospora bakis (A. Rich.) Miers



Dorstenia foetida (Forssk.) Schweinf.

Ficus carica L.,

Ficus palmata Forssk.

Ficus sycomorus L

Ficus cordata Thunb.

Ficus ingens (Miq.) Miq.

Ficus glumosa Del.,

Ficus populifolia Vahl

Ficus vasta Forssk.



Maesa lanceolata Forssk.

Myrsine africana L.



Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC.



Boerhavia elegans Choisy

Boerhavia repens L.

Boerhavia diffusa L.

Commicarpus grandiflorus (A. Rich.)

Commicarpus arabicus Meikle

Commicrpus plumbagineus (Cav.) Standley

Commicarpus mistus Thulin

Commicarpus helenae (Roem. & Schultes) Meikle

Pisonia aculeata L. 



Oxalis corniculata L.



Argemone mexicana L.

Argemone ochroleuca Sweet



Olea europaea L. Sp. Pl. 8 (1753). ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri.

Jasminum grandiflorum L.



Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.)Raven



Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) Wt.

Orobanche ramosa L.,

Orobanche minor Sm.



Plumbago zeylanica L.

Limonium axillare (Forssk.) Kuntze

Limonium cylindrifolium (Forssk.)Verdc.



Oxygonum sinuatum (Hochst. & Steudel) Dammer

Rumex nervosus Vahl

Rumex vesicarius L.

Rumex steudelii Hochst. ex A. Rich.

Emex spinosa (L.) Campd.



Polygala irregularis Boss.,

Polygala erioptera DC.,

Polygala abyssinica R. Br. ex Fresen

Polygala tinctoria Vahl,

Polygala senensis Klotzsch.



Talinium portulacifolium (Forssk.) Asch. ex Schweinf

Portulaca oleracea L.

Portulaca quadrifida L.

Portulaca kermesina N.E. Br.



Anagallis arvensis L.

Samolus valerandi L.



Clematis hirsuta Guill. & Perr.



Ochradenus baccatus Del.,

Ochradenus arabicus Chaudhary, Hillc. & A.G. Miller

Reseda sphenocleoides Defl.



Berchemia discolor (Klotzch) Hemsl.

Ziziphus mucronata Willd., Enum.

Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd.

Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Wild & Drummon.

Rhoicissus revoilii Planch.

Cissus quadrangularis L.,

Cissus rotundifolius (Forssk.) Vahl,

Cyphostemma (Planch.) Alston

Cyphostemma ternatum (Forssk.) Desc.

Cyphostemma digitatum (Forssk.) Desc.



Rosa abyssinica Lindley,

Prunus amygdalus (L.) Batsch



Rhizophora mucronata Lam.



Breonadia salicina (Vahl) Hepper & Wood

Galium setaceum Lam., ssp. decaisnei (Boiss.) Ehrend.,

Kohautia aspera (Heyne ex Roth) Bremekamp

Kohautia caespitosa Schnizl. var. caespitosa var. schimperi (Presl.) Bremek

Oldenlandia capensis L.f., var. capensis

Oldenlandia corymbosa L.

Pavetta longiflora Vahl,

Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) K. Schum. \

Psydrax schimperiana (Rich.) Bridson

Pyrostria phyllanthoidea (Baill.) Bridson



Ruta chalepensis L.

Teclea nobilis Del.



Anarrhinum forskalii (J.F. Gmel) Cufod.

Anticharis glandulosa Aschers.

Anticharis linearis (Benth.) Hochst. ex Aschers

Antirrhinum orontium L.

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell.,

Campylanthus pungens O. Schwartz

Craterostigma pumilum Hochst

Kickxia corallicola D.A. Sutton,

Kickxia hastata (R. Br.) Dandy

Lindenbergia indica (L.) Kuntze

Schweinfurthia pterosperma (A. Rich.) A. Br.

Scoparia dulcis L.

Scrophularia arguta Sol.

Striga gesneroides (Willd.) Vatke

Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.,

Verbascum bottae (Deflers) Huber-Mor.

Verbascum sinaiticum Benth.

Verbascum yemense Deflers,

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Sp. Pl.: 12 (1753)

Veronica polita Fries



Salvadora persica L.,

Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Juss. ex Poir



Dodonaea angustifolia L.

Cardiospermum helicacabum L.

Allophyllus rubifolius (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Engl.



Datura ferox L. Amoen.

Datura innoxia Mill.

Datura metal L.

Datura stramonium L.

Nicotiana glauca R. Graham,

Nicotiana tabacum L.

Solanum nigrum L.

Solanum villosum Miller ssp. villosus

                         ssp. miniatum Bernh. ex Willd.

Solanum forskalii Dunal in Hist. Solan. 237. (1813).

Solanum schimperianum Hochst. ex Dun

Solanum glabratum Dunal

Solanum incanum L.

     var. unguiculatum (A. Rich.) Abedin, Al-Yahya, S. Chaud., Moosa.

Solanum coagulans Forssk.,

Solanum surattense Burm.f.

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal



Sideroxylon buxifolium Hutch

Mimusops laurifolia (Forssk.) Friis



Melhania ovata (Cav.) Spreng.

Melhania incana Heyne ex Wight & Arn.

Melhania velutina Forssk.

Melhania stipulosa J.R.I. Wood

Melhania denhamii R. Br

Waltheria indica L.



Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bunge

Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst.,



Grewia mollis Juss.

Grewia trichocarpa Hochst. ex A. Rich.

Grewia gilletii Sebsebe & Mathew

Grewia velutina (Forssk.) Vahl.

Grewia tembensis Fresen

Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori

Grewia erythraea Schweinf.

Grewia villosa Willd.

Corchorus olitorius L.,

Corchorus trilocularis L.,

Corchorus tridens L.

Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks.

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.



Celtis africana Burm.f.

Trema orientalis (L.) Bl.



Forsskaolea tenacissima L.

Forsskaolea viridis Ehrenb

Parietaria alsinifolia Del.

Parietaria debilis G. Forst.

Parietaria umbricola A.G. Miller

Urtica urens L.



Vahlia digyna (Retz.) Kuntze



Lantana camara L.

Lantana viburnoides (Forssk.) Vahl

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene.,

Chascanum marrubifolium Fenzl ex. Walp.

Priva tenax Verdc.

Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schau.

Vitex trifolia L.

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.



Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell.



Fagonia schweinfurthii (Hadidi) Hadidi

Fagonia indica Burm.f.

Fagonia bruguieri DC.

Zygophyllum simplex L.

Zygophyllum coccineum L. Var. berenicense (Schweinf.) Muschl.

Zygophyllum album L.f.

Zygophyllum hamiense var. mandavillei

(Hadidi) J. Thomas & S. Chaudhary,

Tribulus terrestris L.





Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf., .

Pancratium tortuosum Herbert


Arecaceae (Palmaceae)

Phoenix reclinata Jacq.

Phoenix dactylifera L.

Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart.



Cyanotis nyctitropa Deflers,

Aneilema forskalei Kunth.

Commelina africana L.

Commelina erecta L.

Commelina benghalensis L.

Commelina forskalaei Vahl



Halodule uninervis (Forssk.) Asch.

Cymodocea rotundata Ehrenb. & Hemprich. ex Aschers.



Cyperus alopecuroides Rottb.

Cyperus alternifolius L. ssp. flabelliformis (Rottb.) Kuck.

Cyperus articulatus L.

Cyperus bulbosus Vahl

Cyperus conglomeratus Rottb. ssp. curvulus (Boeck.) Kukkonen

Cyperus dubius ssp. macrocephalus (C.B. Clk.) Lye

Cyperus jeminicus Rottb.

Cyperus laevigatus L.

Cyperus niveus Retz.

Cyperus rotundus L.

Cyperus rubicundus Poir.

Cyperus schimperianus Steud.

Fimbristylis turkistanica (Regel) B. Fedtsch

Fimbrystilis cymosa R.Br.



Dipcadi viride Moench,

Albuca pendula B. Mathew & Colle.



Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Rich. ex Steud

Thalassia hemprichii (Solms) Asch.

Halophila ovalis (R.Br.) Hook. f.

Halophila stipulacea (Forssk.) Aschers.



Juncus rigidus Desf.



Asparagus africanus Lam.

Asparagus flagellaris (Kunth) Bak.

Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.

Aloe castellorum J.R.I. Wood

Aloe fleurentiniorum Lavranos & Newton

Aloe rivierei Lavranos & Newton

Aloe vacillans Forssk.,

Aloe officinalis Forssk.,

Aloe woodii Lavr. & Colle.

Aloe yemenica J.R.I. Wood,

Aloe X qaharensis Lavranos & Collenette



Epipactis veratrifolia Boiss.

Bonatea steudneri (Rchb.f.) T. Durnad & Schinz.

Eulophia petersii (Reichb.) Reichb.f



Pandanus odoratissimus L. f.



Ehrharta erecta Lam.,

Lamarckia aurea Moench,

Rostraria pumila (Desf.) Tzvelev

Gastridium phleoides (Nees & Meyen) C.E. Hubb.

Bromus pulchellus Fig. & De Not.,

Brachypodium distachyum (L.) P. Beauv.

Stipagrostis hirtigluma (Trin. & Rupr.) de Winter

Aristida ferrilateris S.M. Phillips

Aristida adscensionis L.

Aristida funiculata Trin. & Rupr.

Aristida mutabilis Trin. & Rupr.

Enneapogon schimperianus (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Renvoize,

Enneapogon lophotrichus Chiov. ex H.

Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. ex Thw.,

Halopyrum mucronatum (L.) Stapf

Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz.

Ochthochloa compressa (Forssk.) Hilu,

Drake-Brockmania somalensis Stapf

Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R. Br.

Eragrostis tenella (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schultes

Eragrostis aspera (Jacq.) Nees,

Eragrostis japonica (Thumb.) Trin.

Eragrostis minor Host.

Eragrsotis barrelieri Daveaeu,

Eragrostis macilenta (A. Rich.) Steudel,

Eragrostis papposa (Roem. & Schult.) Steud.,

Harpachene schimperi A. Rich.

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. ssp. indica

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd., Enum.

Dactyloctenium aristatum Link

Dactyloctenium scindicum Boiss.

Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf

Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl) Kunth

Sporobolus consimilis Fresen.,

Sporobolus helvolus (Trin.) Dur. & Schinz

Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv

Sporobolus nervosus Hochst.

Urochondara setulosa (Trin.) C.E. Hubb.

Tetrapogon tenellus (Roxb.) Chiov.

Tetrapogon cenchriformis (A. Rich.) Clayton

Tetrapogon villosus Desf.

Chloris barbata Sw.

Chloris gayana Kunth,

Enteropogon macrostachyus (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Munro ex Benth.

Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack.

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.,

Schoenefeldia gracilis Kunth,

Tragus berteronianus Schult.

Panicum maximum Jacq.

Panicum coloratum L.,

Panicum turgidum Forssk.

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link.

Brachiaria leersioides (Hochst.) Stapf

Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gardner & Hubbard

Brachiaria scalaris Pilg.

Brachiaria deflexa (Schum.) C.E. Hubbard ex Robyns

Brachiaria lata (Schum.) C.E. Hubb.

Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv.

Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.

Setaria plicatilis (Hochst.) Hackel ex Engl.

Paspalidium desertorum (A. Rich.) Stapf

Tricholaena teneriffae (L.f.) Link.,

Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubbard

Digitaria nodosa Parl.,

Digitaria velutina (Forssk.) P. Beauv.

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel.

Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.,

Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.

Pennisetum stramineum Peter

Pennisetum unisetum (Nees) Benth.

Cenchrus ciliaris L.,

Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steudel,

Cenchrus setigerus Vahl

Danthoniopsis barbata (Nees) Hubb.

Saccharum spontaneum L., Mant.

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench,

Chrysopogon plumulosus Hochst.

Dichanthium faveolatum (Del.) Roberty

Sehima nervosum (Willd.) Stapf

Arthraxon prionodes (Steudel) Dandy

Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.

Themeda triandra Forssk.,

Elionurus royleanus A. Rich.



Potamogeton nodosus Poir.



Typha domingensis (Pers.) Poir. ex Steud.,

Typha elephatina Roxb



Xerophyta arabica (Baker) N. Menezes

Physalis acuminata (Solanaceae)

A view from Jabal Tallan, near Jabal Fayfa

Marselia aegyptica Willd. (Marsiliaceae)

Croton bonplandianus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

Cadaba glandulosa Forssk. (Capparaceae)

Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. (Capparaceae)

Site conceived and maintained by Dr. Jacob Thomas, Dept.of Botany & Microbiology, King Saud University.