Jabal Lawz (Lauz)

Home             Topography            Vegetation               Flora                Regional Floras             Conservation                    Photo Gallery

Jabal Lawz is the highest mountain in the northern Hijaz, reaching up to 2562 masl. Located north of Tabuk City, Jabal Lawz is one of the coldest areas in Saudi Arabia, often covered by snow during winter. The entire mountain range extends into 464 km2. It is bounded on the south by Wadi Houi, north by Wadi Hajy and west and east by Wadi Afal and Wadi Al Abyad respectively. Unlike other mountain ranges of southern Saudi Arabia, Jabal Lawz ascends gradually to the highest point with several vegetation rich ravines, mostly seen on the east and west facing slopes. The terrain is mostly rocky in nature which are composed of light coloured Calcium rich alkaline granites.  The mountain supports a unique mosaic vegetation mostly influenced by Mediterranean vegetation units. However, Jabal Lawz is unique for its habitats with microclimates along the west facing slopes and for the presence of several endemic and endangered species including the Mediterranean plant Prunus korshinskyi. In Saudi Arabia this species is reported from Jabal Lawz only. The area is also home to several endangered species such as Salix acmophylla , Myrtus communis, Phlomis brachyodon, Verbascum decaisneanum, Nepeta sheilae, Tulipa biflora, etc. 207 species in 60 families have been reported from Jabal Lawz, distributed among five major plant communities such as Juniperus phoenicea-Prunus korshinskyi community, Acacia spp. woodland community, Retama raetam community, Haloxylon salicornicum community and Artemisia sieberi community

 

Acanthaceae

Blepharis ciliaris (L.)B.L.Burtt

 

Aizoaceae

Aizoon canariense L.

 

Alliaceae

Allium stamineum Boiss.

 

Amaranthaceae

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.)Spreng.

 

Amaryllidaceae

Pancratium maximumKer-Gawl.

Pancratium tortuosum Herb

 

Anacardiaceae

Pistacia khinjuk Stocks

 

Apocynaceae

Neriumoleander L.

 

Asclelpiadaceae

Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) W.T. Aiton

Gomphocarpus sinaicus Boiss.

Pergularia tomentosa L.

 

Asphodelaceae

Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.

 

Boraginaceae

Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss.

Anchusa milleri Willd.

Buglossoides tenuiflora (L.f)I.M.Johnston

Heliotropium curassavicum L.

Lappula spinocarpos (Forssk)Aschers

Paracaryum intermedium (Fresen)Lipsky

 

Campanulaceae

Campanula dulcis Decne

Campanula erinus Forssk

 

Capparaceae

Capparis spinosa L. var.mucronifolia (Boiss) I.C. Hedge & Lamond.

Maerua crassifolia Forssk

 

Caryophyllaceae

Arenaria deflexa Decne

Dianthus strictus Banks & Sol. ssp. sublaevis D.F.Chamb.

Gymnocarpos decandrum Forssk

Gypsophila viscosa J.A.Murray.

Holosteum glutinosum (Bieb)Fischer & Meyer

Minuartia picta (Sibth & Smith) Bornm

Paronychia chlorothyrsa Murb.

Polycarpaea repens (Forssk)Asch & Schweinf.

Pteranthus dichotomus Forssk.

Silene colorata Poiret. ssp. oliveriana (Otth.)Muschl.

Silene coniflora Nees ex Otth.

Silene corylina Chamb & Collen

 

Chenopodiaceae

Anabasis articulata (Forssk.)Moq

Anabasis setifera Schweinf.

Bassia eriophora (Schrad)Asch.

Haloxylon salicornicum (Moq) Bunge.

Noaea mucronata (Forssk)Asch & Sch

 

Cistaceae

Helianthemum lippii (L) DoumCours

 

Colchicaceae

Colchicum ritichii R.Br.

Colchicum cf schimperi Lanka ex Stef

 

Compositae - Asteraceae

Anthemis zoharyana Eig.

Artemisia judaica L.

Artemisia sieberi Besser.

Centaurea eryngioides Lam

Centaurea pseudosinaica Czerep.

Echinops glaberrimus DC.

Gymnarrhena micrantha Desf

Lasiopogon muscoides(Desf) DC.

Launaea spinosa (Forssk)Sch.- Bip. Ex Kuntze.

Leysera leyseroides (Desf) Maire

Onopordum sibthorpianum Boiss & Heldbr.

Osteospermum vaillantii (Decne) T.Norlindh.

Phagnalon barbeyanum Asch & Sch

Phagnalon sinaicum Bornm & Kneucker

Phagnalon sp.aff. rupestre (L.)DC.

Picris babylonica Hand.-Mazz.

Pulicaria arabica (L.) Cass.

Pulicaria incisa (Lam.)D.C.Prod

Pulicaria undulata (L.)C.A.Mey

Reichardia tingitana (L.)Roth.

Scariola orientalis (Boiss.)Sojak

Scorzonera schweinfurthii Boiss.

Senecio glaucus L.

Tanacetum santolinoides (DC.) Feinbr & Fertig.

Varthemia montana (Vahl)Boiss

 

Cruciferae - Brassicaceae

Alyssum marginatum Steudel ex Boiss

Alyssum subspinosum T.R.Dudley.

Arabidopsis thaliana (L)Heynh

Arabis nova Villars.

Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.

Diplotaxis acris (Forssk)Boiss

Diplotaxis harra (Forssk)Boiss

Farsetia aegyptia Turra

Isatis lusitanica L.

Matthiola arabica Boiss

Morettia canescens Boiss

Morettia parviflora Boiss

Notoceros bicorne (Ait)Amo

Sisymbrium erysimoides Desf

Sisymbrium septulatum DC.

Zilla spinosa Prantl.

 

Cucurbitaceae

Citrullus colocynthis (L.)Schrad.

Cucumis prophetarum L . ssp. prophetarum

 

Cupressaceae

Juniperus phoenicea L.

 

Cuscutaceae

Cuscuta planiflora Tenore

 

Cynomoriaceae

Cynomorium coccineum L.

 

Cyperaceae

Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Sojak.

 

Dipsacaceae

Pterocephalus sanctus Decne.

 

Ephedraceae

Ephedra aphylla

 

Euphorbiaceae

Andrachne aspera Spreng. var. aspera

Euphorbia granulata Forssk.

Euphorbia chamaepeplus Boiss & Gaill

Mercurialis annua L.

 

Geraniaceae

Erodium cicutarium (L.)LíHer.

Erodium laciniatum(Cav.)Willd.var. pulverulentum (Cav)Willd.

Erodium laciniatum(Cav.)Willd var. glanduloso-pilosum Viern.

 

Gramineae - Poaceae

Hordeum secalinum Schreb.

Bromus fasciculatus C. Presl.

Piptatherum miliaceum (L.) Coss.

Schismus barbatus (L.) Thell.

Stipa capensis Thunb.

Stipa parviflora Desf.

 

Guttiferae (Hypericaceaea)

Hypericum sinaicum Hochs.Ex Bois

 

Hyacinthaceae

Bellevalia flexuosa Boiss.

Dipcadi erythraeum Webb & Berth.

 

Juncaceae

Juncus rigidus Desf.

 

Labiatae - Lamiaceae

Ajuga chamaepitys (L.)Schreb. ssp.tridactylites (Ging.ex Benth.) P.H.Davis.

Ballota saxatilis C.Presl

Ballota undulata (Fres.) Benth.

Lamium ehrenbergii Boiss & Reut. Ex Boiss.

Lavandula pubescens Decne.

Nepeta sheilae Hedge & R.A.King.

Mentha longifolia (L.) L.

Nepeta celicica Boiss. ex Benth.

Nepeta sheilae Hedge & R.A. King.

Origanum syriacum L.

Otostegia fruticosa (Forssk.) Schweinf.ex Penzig . ssp. schimperi

Phlomis brachyodon (Boiss.)Zoh.

Stachys aegyptiaca Pers.

Teucrium leucocladum Boiss.

Teucrium polium L.

Thymus decussates Benth.

 

Leguminosae

Acacia gerrardii Benth.

Acacia raddiana Savi

Acacia tortilis (Forssk.)

Argyrolobium crotalarioides Jaub & Spach.

Astragalus caprinus L.

Astragalus dactylocarpus Boiss .ssp. acinaciferus (Boiss)Otto

Astragalus echinus DC. ssp. arabicus I.C.Hedge &D.Podl.

Astragalus fruticosus Forssk.

Astragalus spinosus (Forssk.)Muschl.

Astragalus tribuloides Del. var. minutus Boiss.

Colutea istria Mill.

Crotalaria aegyptiaca Benth.

Lotononis platycarpa (Viv.)Pichi.- Serm.

Ononis natrix L.

Psoralea bituminosa L.

Retama raetam (Forssk) Webb

Senna italica Miller.

Trigonella hamosa L.

 

Liliaceae

Gagea reticulata (Pall.)J.A.& J.H. Schultes.

Tulipa biflora Pall.

 

Loranthaceae

Plicosepalus acaciae (Zucc.) Wiens & Polhill.

 

Malvaceae

Malva parviflora L. var microcarpa (Desf.) Paol.

 

Menispermaceae

Tinospora malabarica Miers

 

Moraceae

Ficus palmata Forssk. ssp. virgata (Roxb.)Browicz.

 

Moringaceae

Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

 

Myrtaceae

Myrtus communis L.

 

Orobanchaceae

Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout.

 

Palmae - Arecaceae

Phoenix dactylifera L.  

 

Papaveraceae

Glaucium arabicum Fresen.

Hypecoum pendulum L.

Papaver decaisnei Hochst & Steudel.

 

Plantaginaceae

Plantago afra L.

Plantago boissieri Hausskn & Bornm.

Plantago lanceolata L.

Plantago maris-mortui Eig.

Plantago ovata Forssk.

 

Polygalaceae

Polygala negevensis Danin

Atraphaxis spinosa L.

 

Polygonaceae

Atraphaxis spinosa L.

Polygonum aviculare L.

Rumex vesicarius L.

 

Primulaceae

Anagallis arvensis L. var. caerulea (L.)Gouan.

Androsace maxima L.

 

Pteridophytes

Adiantaceae

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

 

Resedaceae

Caylusea hexagyna (Forssk.) M.L. Green.

Ochradenus baccatus Del.

Reseda muricata Presl.

 

Rhamnaceae

Sageretia thea (Osbeck)M.C. Johnston.

 

Rosaceae

Prunus korshinskyi Hand.-Mazz.

Rosa abyssinica Lindley

 

Rubiaceae

Callipeltis cucullaris (L.) Stev.

Crucianella ciliata Lam.

Crucianella membranacea Boiss.

Galium canum.Req. ssp. canum

Galium sinaicum (Del. ex Decne) Boiss.

Galium spuriumL. var. africanum Verdc.

 

Salicaceae

Salix acmophylla Boiss. Diag.

 

Sapindaceae

Dodonaea angustifolia L.f.

 

Scrophulariaceae

Anarrhinum forsskalii (J.F.Gmel.) Cufod.

Chaenorhinum rubrifolium (Robill. & Cast.ex Lam. &DC.)Fourr.

Linaria haelava (Forssk.) Del. Scrophularia peyronii Post.

Scrophularia deserti Delile

Verbascum decaisneanum O.Kuntze.

Verbascum schimperianum Boiss.  

Verbascum sinaiticum Benth.

Veronica anagalloides Guss .ssp. heureka M.A.Fisch.

Veronica rubrifolia Boiss .ssp. respectatissima M.A.Fisch.

 

Solanaceae

Hyoscyamus pusillus L.

Lycium shawii Roem & Schult

Solanum incanum L.

Solanum villosum Miller .Gard.Dict. ssp. miniatum Edmonds.

 

Umbelliferae - Apiaceae

Anisosciadium lanatum Boiss

Anisosciadium isosciadium Bornm.

Deverra triradiata Hochst.ex Boiss.

Eryngium glomeratum Lam

Ferula sinaica Boiss Scandix stellata Banks & Sol.

Zosima absinthifolia (Vent.)Link.

 

Urticaceae

Forsskaolea tenacissima L.

Parietaria alsinifolia Del.Descr.  

 

Valerianaceae

Valerianella szovitsiana Fisch & Mey

 

Zygophyllaceae

Fagonia boveana (Hadidi) Hadidi & Garf.

Fagonia tenuifolia Steud. & Hochst. ex Boss.

Peganum harmala L.

 

 

Jabal Lawz,  Two views from north facing sides

Astracantha echinus

Jabal Lawz, a northern gully

Jabal Lawz, south-eastern slope dominated by Pulicaria glutinosa

Prunus korshinskyi

 

Nepeta cilicica

Alyssum subspinosum

 

Origanum syriacum

Ballota adenophora

Atraphaxis spinosa

Page written and managed by Dr. Jacob Thomas, Dept. of Botany & Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.