Ibex Reserve

Howtha Bani Tamim

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                           Ibex Reserve, a protected area, is situated in the Hilwa village, near Howtha Bani Tamim, about 180 km south of Riyadh City. It extends into a large area (1840 km2), between 23' 12 and 23' 35 N, and 46' 15 and 46' 50 E. It is a long and narrow wadi bounded on both sides by steep rocky walls, which are ideal for the protection of the Nubian Ibex, hyrax wild cats, mongoose and eagles. The area is part of the mighty Tuwaiq Escarpment seen in the middle, as a back-bone of central Najd Zone. The climate of Ibex protectorate is, generally, tropical, hot or extreme hot in summer, cold in winter. An average 20 mm rain is expected during winter-spring months, between December and April or a few intermittent to heavy rainfall in October-November. Three or possibly four major communities are present in the Ibex Reserve, such as Haloxylon salicornicum community, Acacia tortilis-Rhazya stricta community, Ziziphus nummularia-Acacia tortilis-Lycium shawii community and Rhanterium epapposum-Calotropis procera community, each of them is present in unique habitats or seen as overlapping each other.

Flora is relatively rich. Approximately 265 species in 49 families have been reported, of which Poaceae is the largest family followed by Asteraceae, Cruciferae and Leguminosae

Ochradenus arabicus, an endemic plant in Saudi Arabia

 
Flora of Ibex Reserve

Pteridophytes

Adiantum capillus-veneris
  Cheilanthus pteridioides
  Cheilanthus villea
  Ophioglossum polyphyllum
Acaanthaceae Blepharis ciliaris
Aizoaceae Aizoon canariense
  Gisekia pharnaceoides
Amaranthaceae Aerva javanica
Apocynaceae Rhazya stricta
Asclepiadaceae Calotropis procera 
  Glossonema varians
  Leptadenia pyrotechnica
  Pergularia tomentosa
  Periploca aphylla
Asphodelaceae Asphodelus fistulosus
Boraginaceae Arnebia decumbens
  Arnebia linearifolia
  Arnebia hispidissima
  Echium rawolfii
  Gastrocotyle hispida
  Heliotropium digynum
  Heliotropium ramosissima
  Lappula spinocarpus
  Ogastemma pusillum
  Trichodesma africanum
Capparaceae Capparais cartilaginea
  Caparis spinosa
  Capparis spinosa var. mucronifolia
  Cleome ablyocarpa
  Cleome noeana
  Cleome rupicola
  Dipterygium glaucum
  Maerua crassifolia
Caryophyllaceae Cometes surattense
  Gymnocarpus decandrum
  Gypsophila capillaris
  Herniaria hirsuta
  Paronychia arabica
  Polycarpaea repens
  Polycarpaea robbairea
  Scleocephalus arabicus
  Silene arabica
  Silene conoidea
  Silene villosa
  Spergula fallax
  Spergularia diandra
  spergularia salina
Chenopodiaceae Bassia eriophora
  Bassia muricata
  Chenopodium album
  Chenopodium murale
  Halothamnus bottae
  Haloxylon persicum
  Haloxylon salicornicum
  Salsola imbricata
  Salsola lachnantha
Cistaceae Helianthemum kahiricum
  Helianthemum lippii
  Helianthemum sessiliflorum
Compositae Aaronsohnia factorovskyi
  Anthemis deserti
  Anvillea garcinii
  Artemisia monosperma
  Artemisia scoparia
  Asteriscus pygmaeus
  Actractylis carduus
  Blumea bovei
  Calendula tripterocarpa
  Centaurea pseudosinaica
  Echinops erinaceus
  Filago desertorum
  Gymnarrhena micrantha
  Heteroderis pusilla
  Ifloga spicata
  Iphiona scabra
  Koelpinia linearis
  Lactuca serriola
  Launaea capitata
  Launaea angustifolia
  Phagnalon schweinfurthii
  Picris cyanocarpa
  Pulicaria glutinosa
  Pulicaria incisa
  Pulicaria undulata
  Reichardia tingitana
  Rhanterium epapposum
  Scorzonera tortuosissima
  Senecio flavus
  Senecio glaucus
  Sonchus oleraceus
  Zoegea purpurea
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus fatmensis
  Convolgulus glomeratus
  Convolvulus oxyphyllus ssp. Oxycladus
  Cuscuta planiflora
Cruciferae/Brassicaceae Anastatica hierochuntica
  Brassica tournefortii
  Diplotaxis acris
  Diplotaxis harra
  Eremobium aegyptiacum ssp. Lineare
  Eruca sativa
  Farsetia aegyptia
  Farsetia burtonae
  Farsetia longisiliqua
  Farsetia stylosa
  Horwoodia dicksoniae
  Lepidium aucheri
  Leptaleum filifolium
  Matthiola longipetala
  Morettia parviflora
  Moricandia sinaica
  Neotorularia torulosa
  Notoceras bicorne
  Savignya parviflora
  Schouwia purpurea
  Sisymbrium erysimoides
  Zilla spinosa
Cucurbitaceae Citrullus colocynthis
  Cucumis prophetarum
Cyperaceae Cyperus bulbosus
  Cyperus rotundus
Dipsacaceae Scabiosa olivieri
Ephedraceae Ephedra foliata
Euphorbiaceae Chrozophora oblongifolia
  Euphorbia dracunculoides
  Euphorbia granulata
  Euphorbia grossheimii
  Euphorbia retusa
  Ricinus communis
Geraniaceae Erodium neuradifolium
  Erodium oxyrrynchum
  Monsonia nivea
Hyacinthaceae Dipcadi unicolor
Juncaceae Juncus rigidus
Labiatae Lavandula coronopifolia
  Salvia aegyptiaca
  Salvia deserti
  Teucrium polium
Leguminosae Acacia ehrenbergiana
  Acacia oerfota
  Acacia raddiana
  Acacia tortilis
  Argyrolobium arabicum
  Astragalus crenatus
  Astragalus hauarensis
  Astragalus schimperi
  Astragalus sieberi
  Astragalus tribuloides
  Hippocrepis bicontorta
  Hippocrepis ciliata
  Indigofera articulata
  Lotononis platycarpa
  Medicago minima
  Melilotus indica
  Rhynchosia memnonia
  Senna italica
  Tephrosia purpurea
  Trigonella hamosa
  Trigonella stellata
Malvaceae Abutilon fruticosum
  Althaea ludwigii
  Hibiscus micranthus
  Malva parviflora
Menispermaceae Cocculus pendulus
Moraceae Ficus palmata
  Ficus cordata ssp. Salicifolia
Neuradaceae Neuradaceae
Nyctaginaceae Boerhavia elegans
  Commicarpus grandiflorus
Orobanchaceae Cistanche phelypaea
  orobanche aegyptiaca
  orobanche cernua
Palmae Phoenix dactylifera
Plantaginaceae Plantago afra
  Plantago boissieri
  Plantago ciliata
  Plantago ovata
Poaceae Aegilops kotschyi
  Aristida adscensionis
  Brachypodium distachyon
  Bromus fasciculatus
  Cenchrus ciliaris
  Cenchrus pennisetiformis
  Centropodia forsskalii
  Chloris virgata
  Chrysopogon plumulosus
  Cymbopogon commutatus
  Cynodon dactylon
  Dactyloctenium scidicum
  Dichanthium foveolatum
  Echinochloa colona
  Enneapogon desvauxii
  Enneapogon schiperianus
  Eragrostis barrelieri
  Hyparrhenia hirta
  Imperata cylindrica
  Lasiurus scindicus
  Ochthochloa compressa
  Orotetium capense
  Panicum turgidum
  Pennisetum divisum
  Pennisetum setacem
  Phalaris minor
  Phragmites australis
  Rostraria pumila
  Schismus arabicus
  Sporobolus nervosus
  Stipa capensis
  Stipagrostis foexiana
  Stipagrostis hirtigluma
  Stipagrostis obtusa
  Stipagrostis plumosa
  Stipagrostis raddiana
  Tetrapogon villosus
  Tragus berteronianus
  Tragus racemosus
  Tricholaena teneriffae
  Tripogon africanus
  Tripogon multiflorus
Polygalaceae Polygala erioptera
  Polygala schwartiziana
Polygonaceae Emex spinosa
  Polygonum aviculare
  Rumex vesicarius
Primulaceae Anagallus arvensis var. caerulea
  Samolus valerandi
Resedaceae Caylusea hexagyna
  Ochradenus arabicus
  Ochradenus baccatus
  Oligomeris linifolia
  Reseda arabica
  Reseda muricata
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus nummularia
  Zizphus spina-christi
Rubiaceae Callipeltis aperta
  Gallium setaceum ssp. decaisnei
  Kohautia caespitosa
  Pterogaillonia calycoptera
Rutaceae Haplophyllum tuberculatum
Scrophulariaceae Anticharis arabica
  Anticharis glandulosa
  Aptosimum pumilum
  Kickxia acerbiana
  Misopates orontium
  Scrophularia deserti
Solanaceae Lycium shawii
Tamaricaceae Tamarix nilotica
Tiliaceae Corchorus depressus
  Grewia erythraea
  Grewia mollis
Typhaceae Typha domingensis
Umbelliferae Anisosciadium lanatum
  Ducrosia anethifolia
  Pycnocycla nodiflora
Urticaceae Forsskoalea tenacissima
  Parietaria alsinifolia
Zygophyllaceae Fagonia bruguieri
  Fagonia glutinosa
  Fagonia indica
  Seetzenia lanata
  Tribulus pentandrus
  Tribulus terrestris var. inermis
  Tribulus terrestris var. robustus
  Tetraena propinqua
  Tetraena simplex
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Designed and maintained by Dr. Jacob Thomas, Dept. of Botany & Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.